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Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
Preface
Table of Contents
1. I. Quality Concepts and Tools
	1.1 A. Quality Concepts
		1.1.1 Customers and Suppliers
			1.1.1.1 Who are the Customers and Who are the Suppliers?
			1.1.1.2 What Does it Take to Satisfy Customers?
		1.1.2 Quality Principles for Products and Processes
			1.1.2.1 Features, Fitness-for-Use, Freedom from Defects
			1.1.2.2 Processes
		1.1.3 Quality Standards, Requirements, and Specifications
			1.1.3.1 Specifications
			1.1.3.2 Standards
		1.1.4 Cost of Quality COQ
			1.1.4.1 Total Quality Costs
		1.1.5 Six Sigma
			1.1.5.1 Master Black Belts
			1.1.5.2 Black Belts
			1.1.5.3 Green Belts
			1.1.5.4 Six Sigma Projects
			1.1.5.5 Six Sigma Project Tools
		1.1.6 Lean
			1.1.6.1 Kanban
			1.1.6.2 Pull Systems
			1.1.6.3 5S
			1.1.6.4 Flow
			1.1.6.5 Value Stream Maps
		1.1.7 Continuous Improvement Techniques
			1.1.7.1 The Plan-Do-Check-Act PDCA Cycle
			1.1.7.2 Brainstorming
	1.2 B. Quality Tools
		1.2.1 Cause-and-Effect Diagram
		1.2.2 Flowcharts Process Maps
		1.2.3 Check Sheets
		1.2.4 Pareto Charts
		1.2.5 Control Charts
			1.2.5.1 The Run Chart
		1.2.6 Histograms
		1.2.7 Scatter Diagrams
	1.3 C. Team Functions
		1.3.1 Meeting Management
		1.3.2 Team Building Methods
		1.3.3 Team Stages
		1.3.4 Global Communication
2. II. Statistical Techniques
	2.1 A. General Concepts
		2.1.1 Terminology
		2.1.2 Frequency Distributions
			2.1.2.1 The Normal Distribution
			2.1.2.2 Discrete Distributions
	2.2 B. Calculations
		2.2.1 Measures of Central Tendency
			2.2.1.1 Mean
			2.2.1.2 Median
			2.2.1.3 Mode
		2.2.2 Measures of Dispersion
		2.2.3 Statistical Inference
			2.2.3.1 Confidence Level
		2.2.4 Confidence Limits
		2.2.5 Probability
			2.2.5.1 Basic Probability Rules
			2.2.5.2 Contingency Tables
			2.2.5.3 General Multiplication Rule
			2.2.5.4 Independence and the Special Multiplication Rule
			2.2.5.5 Permutations
			2.2.5.6 Normal Distribution
	2.3 C. Control Charts
		2.3.1 Control Limits vs. Specification Limits
		2.3.2 Variables Charts
		2.3.3 Attributes Charts
			2.3.3.1 Charting Defectives
		2.3.4 Process Capability Measures
			2.3.4.1 Calculating C_pk
			2.3.4.2 Calculating C_p
			2.3.4.3 Calculating CR
		2.3.5 Common and Special Cause Variation
		2.3.6 Data Plotting
3. III. Metrology and Calibration
	3.1 A. Types of Measurement and Test Equipment MT&E
		3.1.1 Concepts in Measurements
			3.1.1.1 Measurement Error
			3.1.1.2 Accuracy
			3.1.1.3 Precision
			3.1.1.4 Repeatability and Reproducibility
		3.1.2 Hand Tools
			3.1.2.1 Steel Rules
			3.1.2.2 Verniers
			3.1.2.3 Digital Calipers
			3.1.2.4 Micrometers
			3.1.2.5 Digital Micrometers
			3.1.2.6 Micrometer Calipers
		3.1.3 Gauges
			3.1.3.1 Classes
			3.1.3.2 Common Gages
			3.1.3.3 Ring Gages
			3.1.3.4 Snap Gages
			3.1.3.5 Spline Gages
			3.1.3.6 Templates
			3.1.3.7 Screw Pitch Gages
			3.1.3.8 Special Gages
			3.1.3.9 Functional Gages
			3.1.3.10 Flush Pin Gages
			3.1.3.11 Sizes
			3.1.3.12 Tolerances
			3.1.3.13 Indicating Gages and Comparators
			3.1.3.14 Mechanical Indicating Gages
		3.1.4 Optical Tools
			3.1.4.1 Optical Comparators
		3.1.5 Coordinate Measuring Machines
			3.1.5.1 Coordinate Measuring Machine Classification
			3.1.5.2 Moving Bridge CMM
			3.1.5.3 Contacting Probes
			3.1.5.4 Noncontacting Sensors
		3.1.6 Electronic Measuring Equipment
			3.1.6.1 Electric and Electronic Gages
			3.1.6.2 Air Gages
		3.1.7 Weights, Balances, and Scales
			3.1.7.1 Measuring Weight and Mass
			3.1.7.2 Balances and Scales
		3.1.8 Hardness Testing Equipment
			3.1.8.1 Brinell
			3.1.8.2 Rockwell
			3.1.8.3 Other Measuring Standards
		3.1.9 Surface Plate Methods and Equipment
			3.1.9.1 The Surface Plate
			3.1.9.2 Surface Metrology
			3.1.9.3 Surface Characteristics
			3.1.9.4 Surface Quality Specifications
		3.1.10 Surface Analyzers
			3.1.10.1 Measurement of Surface Finish
			3.1.10.2 Optical Flats
		3.1.11 Force Measurement Tools
		3.1.12 Angle Measurement Tools
			3.1.12.1 Simple Tools
			3.1.12.2 The Sine Bar
			3.1.12.3 Dividing Heads
			3.1.12.4 Layout Instruments and Locating Devices
		3.1.13 Color Measurement Tools
			3.1.13.1 Spectrophotometers
			3.1.13.2 Color Guides
		3.1.14 Automatic Gauging Systems
	3.2 Summary of Gage Uses and Applications
	3.3 B. Control and Maintenance of M&TE
		3.3.1 M&TE Identification, Control, and Maintenance
			3.3.1.1 Equipment Traceability
			3.3.1.2 Gage Maintenance, Handling, and Storage
		3.3.2 Customer-Supplied M&TE
	3.4 Calibration of M&TE
		3.4.1 Gage Calibration Environment
		3.4.2 Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility
		3.4.3 Calibration Systems
		3.4.4 Calibration Intervals
			3.4.4.1 Calibration Documentation and History
			3.4.4.2 Calibration Work Order
			3.4.4.3 Process Equipment
			3.4.4.4 Calibration Equipment
		3.4.5 Calibration Error
			3.4.5.1 Calibration Procedures
			3.4.5.2 Calibration Environment Specifications
			3.4.5.3 Calibration Status Indicators
			3.4.5.4 Calibration Standards
			3.4.5.5 Out-of-Calibration Effects
4. IV. Inspection and Test
	4.1 A. Blueprint Reading and Interpretation
		4.1.1 Blueprint Symbols and Components
		4.1.2 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing GD&T Terminology
			4.1.2.1 Dimensioning and Tolerancing
			4.1.2.2 Positional Tolerances
			4.1.2.3 Product and Component Characteristics
		4.1.3 Classification of Product Defect Characteristics
	4.2 B. Inspection Concepts
		4.2.1 Uses of Inspection
		4.2.2 Types of Measurements
		4.2.3 Gauge Selection
			4.2.3.1 Test Uncertainty Ratio TUR and Test Accuracy Ratio TAR
		4.2.4 Measurement Systems Analysis MSA
			4.2.4.1 Accuracy
			4.2.4.2 Precision
			4.2.4.3 Repeatability and Reproducibility
		4.2.5 Rounding Rules
			4.2.5.1 Rounding Up
			4.2.5.2 Rounding Down
		4.2.6 Conversion of Measurements
		4.2.7 Inspection Points
			4.2.7.1 Inspection Plan
		4.2.8 Inspection Error
		4.2.9 Measurement Scales
		4.2.10 Product Traceability
		4.2.11 Certificates of Compliance COC and Analysis COA
	4.3 C. Inspection Techniques and Processes
		4.3.1 Nondestructive Testing NDT Techniques
		4.3.2 Destructive Testing Techniques
		4.3.3 Other Testing Techniques
			4.3.3.1 Functionality Testing
			4.3.3.2 Software Testing and Verification
			4.3.3.3 Physical and Mechanical Measurements
			4.3.3.4 Hardness Testing
	4.4 D. Sampling
		4.4.1 Sampling Characteristics
			4.4.1.1 Lot-by-Lot versus Average Quality Protection
			4.4.1.2 The Operating Characteristic OC Curve
		4.4.2 Sampling Types
			4.4.2.1 Sampling versus 100% Inspection
			4.4.2.2 Acceptance Sampling by Attributes
			4.4.2.3 Acceptance Sampling by Variables
		4.4.3 Selecting Samples from Lots
			4.4.3.1 Attributes Sampling Plans
			4.4.3.2 ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2008
			4.4.3.3 Levels of Inspection
			4.4.3.4 Variables Sampling Plans
			4.4.3.5 ANSI/ASQ Z1.9-2008
	4.5 Nonconforming Material
		4.5.1 Identifying and Segregating
			4.5.1.1 Determining Conformance Status
			4.5.1.2 Identifying Nonconforming Materials
			4.5.1.3 Segregating Nonconforming Materials
		4.5.2 Material Review Process
			4.5.2.1 Investigation of Root Causes
5. V. Quality Audits
	5.1 A. Audit Types and Terminology
		5.1.1 Source of Auditors
		5.1.2 Auditor Types
	5.2 B. Audit Components
		5.2.1 Purpose/Scope
		5.2.2 Preparation
			5.2.2.1 Identification of Authorization Source
			5.2.2.2 Determination of the Audit Purpose
			5.2.2.3 Determination of Audit Type
			5.2.2.4 Determination of Resources Required
			5.2.2.5 Formation of the Audit Team
			5.2.2.6 Assignment of Audit Team Roles and Responsibilities
			5.2.2.7 Identification of Requirements
			5.2.2.8 Establishment of Time Schedule
		5.2.3 Performance
			5.2.3.1 Managing/Administering the Audit Process
			5.2.3.2 Creating a Set of Working Papers
			5.2.3.3 Conducting an Opening Meeting
			5.2.3.4 Collecting Data
			5.2.3.5 Analyzing Data
			5.2.3.6 Conducting an Exit Meeting
		5.2.4 Documentation
		5.2.5 Closure
	5.3 C. Audit Tools and Techniques
		5.3.1 Checklists
		5.3.2 Audit Working Papers
		5.3.3 Quantitative Quality Tools
		5.3.4 Objective Evidence
		5.3.5 Forward and Backward Tracing
		5.3.6 Audit Sampling Plans
		5.3.7 Procedural Guidelines
	5.4 D. Audit Communication Tools
		5.4.1 Interviewing Techniques
		5.4.2 Listening Skills
6. VI. Preventive and Corrective Action
	6.1 A. Corrective Action
	6.2 B. Preventive Action
	6.3 Nonconforming Material Identification
		6.3.1 Determining Conformance Status
		6.3.2 Identifying Nonconforming Materials
		6.3.3 Segregating Nonconforming Materials
	6.4 Nonconforming Material Review Process
	6.5 Investigation of Root Causes
List of Figures and Tables
Glossary
References
Appendices
	Appendix A: ASQ Code of Ethics
		A.1 Fundamental Principles
			A.1.1 Relations with the Public
			A.1.2 Relations with Employers, Customers, and Clients
			A.1.3 Relations with Peers
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	X
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 121

114 Chapter 3

II
I.

A
.9

2. Rp is the maximum profile height from the mean line within the
sampling length. Rpm is the mean value of Rp’s determined over
five sampling lengths.

3. PC (peak count) is the number of peak/valley pairs per inch projecting
through a band of width b centered about the mean line.

optical flats. Light waves of any kind are of invariable length and are the stan-
dards for ultimate measures of distance. Basically, all interferometers divide a
light beam and send it along two or more paths. Then the beams are recombined
and always show interference in some proportion to the differences between
the lengths of the paths. One of the simplest illustrations of the phenomenon is the
optical flat and a monochromatic light source of known wavelength.

The optical flat is a plane lens, usually a clear fused quartz disk, from about
51–254 mm (2–10 in) in diameter and 13–25 mm (.5–1 in) thick. The faces of a flat
are accurately polished to nearly true planes; some have surfaces within 25 nm
(.000001 in) of true flatness.

Helium is commonly used in industry as a source of monochromatic or single-
wavelength light because of its convenience. Although helium radiates a number
of wavelengths of light, that portion that is emitted with a wavelength of 587 nm
(.00002313 in) is so much stronger than the rest that the other wavelengths are
practically unnoticeable.

The principle of light-wave interference and the operation of the optical flat
are illustrated in Figure 3.28a wherein an optical flat is shown resting at a slight
angle on a workpiece surface. Energy in the form of light waves is transmitted
from a monochromatic light source to the optical flat. When a ray of light reaches
the bottom surface of the flat, it is divided into two rays. One ray is reflected
from the bottom of the flat toward the eye of the observer, while the other contin-
ues on downward and is reflected and loses one-half wavelength on striking the
top of the workpiece. If the rays are in phase when they re-form, their energies
reinforce each other, and they appear bright. If they are out of phase, their energies
cancel and they are dark. This phenomenon produces a series of light and dark
fringes or bands along the workpiece surface and the bottom of the flat, as illus-
trated in Figure 3.28b. The distance between the workpiece and the bottom surface
of the optical flat at any point determines which effect takes place. If the distance
is equivalent to some whole number of half wavelengths of the same monochro-
matic light, the reflected rays will be out of phase, thus producing dark bands.
This condition exists at positions X and Z of Figure 3.28a. If the distance is equiv-
alent to some odd number of quarter wavelengths of the light, the reflected rays
will be in phase with each other and produce light bands. The light bands would
be centered between the dark bands. Thus a light band would appear at position
Y in Figure 3.28a.

Since each dark band indicates a change of one-half wavelength in distance
separating the work surface and flat, measurements are made very simply by
counting the number of these bands and multiplying that number by one-half
the wavelength of the light source. This procedure is illustrated in Figure 3.28b.
There, the diameter of a steel ball is compared with a gage block of known height.

Page 240

Index Terms Links



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total quality cost 7

traceability

equipment 121

product 147

transfer standard 129

transfer type instruments 138

type I error 129

type II error 129

U

u-chart 64

ultrasonic testing 149

unilateral tolerance 132

universe, definition 35

V

value stream map 14

variable 135

variable inductance transducer 104

variable transformer 105

variables, acceptance sampling by 157

variables charts 57 59

variables sampling plans 161

variance 46

variation 44

common cause 68

in processes 3 4

special cause 68

venturi gage 105

verification inspection 144

vernier caliper 77

vernier height gage 79

Page 241

Index Terms Links



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vernier micrometer caliper 81

Vickers hardness test 151

virtual teams 33

W

wear allowance, for gages 90

weight 107

working gage 84

working papers, audit 171 175

working standard 128

X

and R chart 57

X-ray testing 149

Z

Z, standard normal distribution

for select values of (Appendix F) 207

X –

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