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TitleASTM B456
TagsChemical Compounds Chemical Elements Chemical Substances Metals Essential Nutrients
File Size6.2 MB
Total Pages11
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Page 1

07/19/95 09:50 DOCU11ENTENGINEERIN!3C.O.. INC. .; 5~5 892 1159 NW,ll:l!:l 1"1.::1"'~{!dl,
! :

41I~ D"lgnltlon: 8 458 .. 94 ,

""~... I -

J .. :.
AMlIllIc:AHIClClITV1'01' 'l'!lnt.O AI«) MA~AI.I : '

111. fIIaee Sl f'1I18d81pIllt,I"AI.,C13
"'U,11II8' 110111IPII AM..., IIooh' AtN IIta,..j.",., °"';'18111 AI N ".

It 1lll11io.1ItIillIh. 'IIIf.1I .""'II\IcIIIIft.. 111"""'11111"" ...", 10...:. ,
c.;~.Jr' (

St.ndard Specification 'or
Electrodeposlted Coatings of Copper Plus NickelPlus
Chromiumand NIckelPlusChromium1

Tb.. 8Iund.rd Is iuucd ul'd~r Ihi flud GealinallOIl a ~S61,hi number1"""01118\.1)'Ibllillllln, Ibt CltII",allOlllnClhlllCSth' ~r Drorll'n.' Idoplioll or. in ,tit ca. or "..Ision. Ih. yeit 6( lu, revllinn.It. IIU",.' IIIpaNn'blllft MIl III' ,lIr arloft nlppro".,I, It.
II/PO"""P' hI '"dlcl4,. III ,di'8ri.1 thllna. Ii,," ,he Iii' ""lllon or tCI,ptO,/II., '

J. Scope
" J This specincatlon covers reQuircmenu(ar Slveral

typesand arudes of eJl!ctrodepo~itedcopper plus nickel plus
~hromium or nickel plus chromium coatin&t$on'teel,nickel
ph~5chromium coatin.- on copper and copper aUo)l',and
C'opperP'UI nickel plus f:hrontillm eoatinp onzinc8J10)'1tor
applicationl whereboth appearanceand. protecllan of the
basil me&lllllinst carro.ion are imponant. Five artdes of
coltin,s .ra pravldedto correspondwith the set'Yicecondi-
tlonl underwhichneh is eJtpccted to provide sad.factory
performance:'namely. extended "cry severe,very severe,
Ryer,.modetate, ,nd mild. Dennidon~ and typical eumples
of ,hlle leJ'\lict conditions are pro\'ldltd in Appendi~XI.

1.2 The rullowift&huards Clveatpenain. only tDthe teat
mothods'ponions. Append;"..Xl, X3. and X4. or this
specification: This s'QltdtJ,d dots """purpOrt to addre:u d'i (Jj
itl,/iIJI CQn(~rnl. if alf)'. tl$S(Jcf4ted with iu wcf. II is the
rtJpOltilbi/ilJ' (Jf the JlICf ()f this IltJ.nda,d 10 ellfJblish fJppro-
prill" stlltt.\' I2nd hefl/th prattle,.s tJnd de"",,;n, the applica.
bility 0/ r~t~l/tllO"J'limiUll;()n.sprlfJr tQ uSt.

Non I-The tSO stand_rd&1436&ftd 145' are no! requir.tI\cntl
butun b; rcf8l',nctd,rot additionallnrormatiOIl.

2. Refcrtnc:o(1Document~

2.1 ASTM Stflndllras;
8 11,. rCSt Method ror Sal,t Spray (Faa) TOitina2
B 183Praeticcror P,reparationbf Low-CarbonSteelrar

ElecuL~Ialina' .
B 242 P"'t;tice for PrepatutitJn of Hip-Carbon $\011ror

B 252 Practiceror '~eparalion of Zinc:AllOYDie CUtin..

for EleetropJatina and Conver'ion Coatinp'
, 8 281 Prac1,jcefal' Preparauon of Copper and Copper base

Alla~'1for EJec:uoplatlnaand Conversion Coatings'
B 287 Method of Acetic:Aeid.Sal\ Spra)'.(Foa) Tesung. '.
B 320 Prattice, fbr Jlrepl\ration ot Iron CUtin.. ror

B 368 Method for Copper-Acceterated Acetic!Acid-Salt

Spray(Fal) TcsUna',
S 380Methodof Corro.lon\1of DecorativeEleetro.

pla\edeoltinas by tht: Cl)I'1'QdkoteProcedur.'

I Thil Iptclfia.lioll il unlltr lilt Jvri84/CIID"of ASTMComlllineeB.8 on
Mtullic ""tllnOlplllc CO&tin81Ind f8 1111"j,., IIIIOnll"lIIl~ or Ivbeoml'll'""
IOLO) 011DteortllYt COIIIIII',Nlcklf. OI'Ol'llilllll, I"d Nitk,loChromlloll'll COI'.

tV""'1 Idilioll .~,tO..c.cI Ma,cll I.. 1994. Publlslled Mo, 1994. Oniinill~
Plllali"',I1... .Sf. U. w, "'twiO",' ~4i,io" 1\45. - 9311.

. "'It'/ifli .,101; qf .tSrM S'lfnda,tI,.. YOI03.0~.

. '''''It/al S...& rl( .1.'1'101 .~la"Jfltfl.r. Vol 02.0~.
" Dlaro/niny.,I-Sa 11/116AItIl'HlIIJI)(JJ;,1 A5"1'M$I...IIII.,dy.VOl0).02.


B487 T.11MethodI'or M.alufement of Metal and Oltide
CoatlnsThlekn*C8 by MicroscopIcsl£uminatlon ora
CrollSoction' .

8 499 Teat Method (or Me.uremtat of Coadn. Thi,k.
. nO&8by theMaane\icMethod:NOftllllllftoticCo.t.iltll

on Ma.netic Jnstt; M,tallI'
a 504Test Method fbr Mcu~rnmlSln uf Thickn/:ss of

Metallic Coat'n.. by the CoulomlJlric:Method'
8 530 Me\hod for Mouurtmont of Coatins Tbi~lc.

neuee by &heMapede Memed: I!lecirodeposi~ NIckel
Coatln.. Oft Mnlnetlc aDd Nonml8netic SubsltttesJ

B 537Pra!rticcfor Ratin, of Elt.ctroplatedPanels Sub-
jectedto AtmollphericExposurel '

14554Guidefor M~urcJ!tent of 1'h.lclcneuof MeWllc
COltln.. on Nonn1CtaJllcSubstrate,' ,

B 568 Tut Method ror Mellurement of Coa\ina Thick-
nell by X-Ray Spcunrometry3 .

B 571 Tesl Methacil for AdhtlioJl ot MehllJi~Coati"..'
e 602TeAtMethodfot AttributeSlamplinlJaf Metallic:and

Jnorpnic Coati11&1:1'
IS659 Ouldo ror MeBSurin~Thickneas of Metallic and

loarpnlc CoatinpJ ,
B 691Quid! (orSelectionor SampllnaPIanofor h,.pee:.

110n of £I,elrodeposited Metallic: aDd Inorpnle
Coatinga) ,

a 762 Mtthod 01'VariablesSampLinlof M.ta11i~and
lnol'pnlc COAdlllpJ

a 764 Method tor SimultaneousThicknessand Electro-
'n Multilay.r NicklslD.po.h (STEP Te:ln)3 j " ',~

D 1193 Speclncationtor a.a,.nt Wa1er' .
D39S' PractJ=(or C.ommerctaJPj&cka&!ul\'
1:50 Pra~llcesfor Apparatus, R~lelllll, and Safety'Pre-

cautionstor Chemica! Analyaiaelt Meulls'
2.2 ISO StaMQ,ds:
JSO1456M.callic cOtunas-ElIIIC1rod,potijtedcoadnpof

nickel plus chromhlM and ot copper 1)lusnickel plus

ISO I." Metallic lcoatinss-Electroplatedcoati"r of
copperplus nickel jpJuachromium 'iirtln or,lteel

~C '
3. T.rmlnOI~IJ. Che ~ /

3.1 Dt/iIflIiD".. I17fTes V~ D
" J(jll eqrch

. ""'ltIlIl Sault 01ASTM ,f//lllfit/fl/"Vol 11.01, lYe. 9 19.ra'/:'

. """lUll&4OIt0/A$TH.'ftlltlj.,I,.Volls,ot. LI vle~ oJ,A"nUM8DO~ ~ tt&T",,Tttmft,4"VOl0).05. "I/p ed /:) ,

. ,4".illl_l,1i,I'IIIn"",aU8Mlllllldafd.Cttillllllhti'/i{ll~ drfjttll1l11.
(lelltVII20, Swl\q,IIIId. ,""fJFch.


. , ,

6S11-268S0S N3A31S 'l'~21:21 S6. 61 lnr
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217/19/95 09:51 DOC\J1'1EtiTENGINEERIN~ CO. I INC. ~ 505 892 1159 ~J.1S6 pa~3/012

SUMMa" of tile Aequlram."la lor Double- ",II T"pl.-La~~ HI.lctl C~.tII\O'
fIIlllIII811 AtltiiYiiOTOj;NICI(1t Tr\;;;'".... _.~
Doubl&-l.AJ8IP- ftlplioL&ytt

0l1l8I'" 81l1litnlf01",,11
-;~eo. -'5o4Di


411}t 8 456


I.'~" Trill 01 NIC'l8I I_'ie 1I0IIgI,lon .111111' Coftt8ll'


>0." 11'1""


T~ M.~ .. a.. ~~ XI

ACopperWIdline:,lAMlr."1 .". tfttIt a_I.
. 'or NOI'I ., aM .. .. Seotlon e.

3.1.1 J/",I/II:,.1I'$uqalu thollsurflcunormallyvisible
(direc\Jyor byrcnecdon)thatareessentialto theappearance
or .ervfceabllltyof the anicle when 811CmbledIn normal
position:or that can belthe sourceor c:orrosionproductslhat
defice visible sul'f8CC$ou the assembledarticle. When
nec:elllry,the II.nlOcantsurracesshall be speeinedby the
purchuer and shall beIndicatedon the drawinp of the parts.
or by the pravilioft of lultabl)l markedsample..

4. ct..,U1car1oft

4.1 FIvearaclol orcoatinas desiaoatod by service condition
, ftumben and ..v.tI! types of coetin..dcO~edbyclasslfica.
tion numberaatecovuedby thi. speeincation.

4.2 Smlt, COlldillDnNumb":
4.2.1 The 8trvlce condition numb.rindicatel the ..verity

of ejtpo$ure ror which the gradeor cOltlnaII Intended: ,
SC j extended .eycr~ $CJ'\tiec
sC 4 very.,vert Hrvicc,'
SC J "VIr. .'rYiCt,
SC 2 modentf. Ilf\llce.and
SC 1 mild service.
4.2.2 Typical serviClcondition. for which the varioul

servicecondition number! Ife appropriate are Jiven in
Appendix X I.

4.3 Comi", Claslijlc:atiQfINumb,r- The coAtil\8clwin.

4.3.1 The cliemlcal symbolrorthebui. meJaI(orforthe
principIImew It.n aUoy)~nowedby . .Iashmark.

".3.2 The chemlcals)'mbolror copper(Cu)(If capporIs
U&~d). ' ,

4.1.1 A num~r indicatln.theminhDumthiclenessof the
coppercoalinain micrometret(U'copper il used),

4.3.4 A lower-cue letter designatlns tho t)'J)Cor co~per
deposit(ir Gopperil used) (se. 4." and 6.2.3),

4,3.5 The chernlcaJ uymbol ror nickel (Ni).
4,3.6 A number indic:atlnathe I'I\h'limumthickneaaorIhe

nickel coalin" in mic:rurnetre.,
4.1.7 A. lower~cuelete.rdelianatln.thotypt of nickel

dCPQlit(see 4.4 find 6.2.4),
4.3.8 The cl\cmlcilsymbol rarchromium(Cr), and
4.3.9 A lotter(or leuors)deaianatin.thetypoofchromham

, deposit and it. minimumthlckn... in micrometrCl(He 4.4
and 6.~.5).

,~.4 $)Jmbo/Jji),E.qJtlls/nt CltUl(j1tmIDfI-Th.faUowln,.
lowor-tase letten shall be used in c:OItln8c:laullic8tion

~ numbersto describetho ty. ot coatinil:
. -duc:tlle tc)~I~t,dej:lOSltedr,orn.cid.t1fP8 baths
b -sinllt-1aye1 I\lOkcldeposited in the fbllY.brialucondition
,. -dull or ltift\:-h"'ah. n~"cl rCQllirini pal:lhi... '0' &I-. tlil/

brisJuneu "




1D':'28" '0 0I

d -doubt.. ortripl..I.~.rfliek~1~oalin&S
r -",1I11t (thilla, CCnYflllllollal)ehtomilolm
me -mictOCllcltld chromhlm
mJl-mlotQporo". chrornlum

4.5Exampl,qf'CDmpl",ClatlijlCtltiO"NumbtrJ-A coat.
in. on Iteelcomprilin. I' j.Lmminimum(ductileacid)
c:apperplus2' 11mminimum (duplex)nickelplul0.25~m
minimum (mlc~racked) chromiumhu the (:Iaulftcatlon
number: Fe/tu15a NI2Sd Cr mc (- 4.3 and 6.1 for
.~pl.n.tion or Iymboll),

S. OrderinllnfoflDadolS,
S.I When ordenq uUcl.. to b. electroplated in conform-

aneewith this standard, the puroha.ser shall IIlIItethe rol..

'.1.1 The!ASTM de$iSnAtionnumber of thl~ Stt\ndatd.
,. '.2 EithertheclUllOcaUonn&&mberor &fteIpcctnccoat-

In, required (see4.3) D' the lubltrlle maceri.a1and thelOrvlt:e:
conditio" "\lmbet denotiq the Beyerityof the conditionsit
is required to wlthltlnd (lee 4.2). If ttte !IOl'Vlce~oncUtioft
number is quoted alld not Ihe ellllint:ation nunlbet, the
manufacturer '5 free to supply Iny or the tYp6!1of cO8llnas
d..lan.ted by thl claasificationnloJmbel'llc:ot1'l!

TABL.!I "lullCllremlumCoolIl\g' elt lta,l
ND'. 1-Au\IIt, 01. "" 1II'IIf1/ll1rlGlla1'Ultr't 18II)1\IImil'" wMUWIlI8

bII,IliII!a "y.'I""S dfllItIIlI6d by IJ'II c~..slftca'iatl nllmlj.,.. II'\w~~II'D 'UClutll cIwo
millm .,. uli'factorY for SC 4 IIId ~C 3.

Non 2-Whtn pennllttCI till Ih. II\IfCNIIf, cop!* mill)' ~ Illed .. 811
undercoal/Of ttk:ktl bII' It noC!tuGtlih..1aDIefar ."y wt 01 "'" IIlcMj Iftj,knest
,pecllIed. If \l1li ~ 01 /!Oppel t. pCImIilttd, T.bIIt 3 till, 118ullOO10 oIal8in tho
.am. ro.~1IOn..

Clt..IIIcI'1On NO." -- NIck81 1'1I1CICnIII.-

'o/Nidd Crma ,;
Fu/NI3$cfCt m~ 35
F"/N~011Of r .0
Fol"ll30c1Ct me 120
PII/NI~OCIer mp 3D
FClINI~OtCf, 30
Ffl/NIIIOCrIl1O' 21
"'/Nlllei Cr"'~ II
F./NMCJCt, 40
II"NI~O.C,mo :10
'II/NI:.OpCt~ 30
'e/NI20110, r :to
f:'JNII'~Cr1M l'
Fefl'4l's.Cr 1'111 1.

Ie ,. Ft/NIIOI0/, 10- ~
" WIIaIIa &dItit ..d" """" IIIr"'. """"'. Dnldtl/ IIU, D8IIID8ulllt8lf

lOt a b ftlckll or lor IN IriOn' lI,er 01 d 1IIokII.

.. p 014 lI!ellal m.y De lutI"IMICII« , /\ICk. In SInice CeIIcdllonHOt. I and
I, ~ m: ormpClVotnIwl'ln'I8)'., lloIIIIcll\II8Grill, CftlanlumIn~ ~tJOft







6S11-268 S0S N3A31S 'l'~ E1:21 S6. 61 lnr

~ ~-

Page 5

£17/19/95 1i1=':~,j UUCUM~NI ~NblN~~~lNb LU.. IN~. ~ ~~~ ~~~ !!~~
I'!U. J.OQ r\:J"-'Qr \:JJ."-

,iii B4SS

nickel/chromiumcomposite coating is to be measured,
withoUI an)' indication of tbe thickness of each individual
layer; " Other methods may be used if it can be demon.
stratcd that tt\e uncC:J1.aintyof the measurement is less than
10%, or lessthan that of any applicablemethod mentioned
in 6.S.3.0Iher methodsarc outJint:din Guide B659. .

6.6 Corrosion TeSt;ng:
6.6.1 Coaled arlides shall be subjected to the COlTosion

. teSIfor a period Dftime that is appropriate for the panicular
service condition n.:amber (or for the service condition
number corrcsponding to a specified class.ification number)
as shown in Table 6. The test is ()esc:ribed in detail in the
referenctd ASTM desianation.

NOTE 6- There is nc direct relationbetweenthe reslIlu or an
.ct~lerated «:ol'1oslonleSI "nd the rlSiSl3ncr to toITosion in other mcdia.
be~allse seve:ral f.clorl. sueh as the fonnadon of protecUvI films.
'nnllenc:t Iht pro&fCSSof cOITOiionand vary areatl)' with the eonditions
enrounlel'td. The resuh5 obtained in the: tlsl should. thererore. nol be
rc:,:ndC!das a direel (luidll to Ihe c:onosion rtsisl:t.n~ of Ihe: ICSled
malenals In all envitOnmenlSwherethese m~nerialsmay be used. AI50.
perfotmance: or ditTerenl malerial, in thl tesl cannOI always be taken as
a dire"l &uide10the relative tesislanceof Ihesemalen;lIsin service.

6.6.2 After the anide has been subjected 10 the treatment
described in \he relevant corrosion test method. it' shall be
examined (or corrosion of the basis metal or blistering of the
coatin&. Any basis metal eorrosion or blistering of the
coatins shall be cause for rejection. It is to be understood that
occasional widely scattered, small corrosion defects may be
observed after the teatina period. In general, "acceptable
res.istance" Jhall mean that such defects are not, when viewed
critically,slenificantiydefaclna or otherwise deJeterious to
the function of the electroplatedpart. A method of ratina
cortosion is ,.iven in Pmctice a537.

6.6.3 Surfacedeteriorationof thecoatini itselfisexpected
to occur during the testins of some types of coatinls. The
utent to which such surface deterioration will be toJerated
shallbe speclnedby the purchaser.

6.7 ST,~P j~$r Requirements:
6.1.1 The electrochemical potential differences between

individual nickel layers shall be measured for muJtilayer
coalings c:ormpond1ha to SC5. SC4, and SC3 in accordance
with Method B i64 (STEP Tesl).

NOT£ 7-Un;vtr$aUy accepltd STEP values havt 1101beln eslab-
liihtd but someagteement in Ihe valueof ranaeshas been obLained. The
STEP 'Valuts del,end upon which two nickell.ycn are bein. measured.

Thc STEP pountial differencebclwec;n the: seml-briE'.ht nieltellll)"!r
and Ihe bri8ht nickel la)'Cr lias 8 ftlnlt 1)( 100 to 200 mY. For all
combinations or nlekellaym. mo scml-brisJtl nicklilayer Is mOR noble
(C8thodic) than the briaht nlcket layer.

The StEP pOtential difference between the hIJh-a.cti\'ity ui«:kellayer
and the briJht nickeillyer In Uiplc-Iayer cn.lJnas 111,\a potentlAl.1Inge
or I S to " mY. The hiah-ac:tMt)' nickel 11)'lIrIs nlora active (anodic)
than the bliSht nickell.)'If.

The STEP potlntial differeDu bllween the brisht Dickell.)'Ir and ..
nickeillyer belwccn me bright nickcll.ytr and the cbromlum layer has
. polen1ialranae oro to 30 mY. The bri8ht nleblla)'er Is morc ao1ivc
(anodic) than th~ mckel laYITprior to ebromium.

6.8.1 The sulfur content of the nickl:I dc~po$itshaltmeet

the maximum' or minimum vaJues as JUttedin 6,2.4.1 Ind
Table I.

6.8.2 Methods for sulfur dctemlinatlons are given in
Appendix X3.

6.9 Dens;tyand Measurementof tile Di.5continu;liesin

6.9.1 'The density or cracks Dr pore$ in microcracked or
microporous chronlium deposits slutll meet minimum
vaJues. Microcracked chromium shall have more than 30
cracks/mm(300crac~ks/cm)in Anydirection over ,he whole
of the significant surface. Mi~rOPi3rouschromium shall
contain a minimum or JO000 pores/IOb:l 10 mm square

. (to 000 pores/em;') in any direction over me whole of the
significant surface, The cracks and pores shitlllx: invisible tD
the unaided eye. ,

6.9.2 Methods for measurin8 the di~Ohtil1uit.iesIIrcth,cn
in Appendix X4. See X4.4 in Appendix. X4 for a meansof
detenniningQct;vecorrosion sites by COITOsiol'lt!lstins.

"1.Samplina Requirements
i.1 The samp1ini ptan used for lhe .Inspectionof a

quantity of coated articles Shan be as agreed upon by the
purchaser and supplier.

NOT'; 8-Usually, who" a eollll::uon or CO'atedanlcl", Iho inspection
lot (8.2). is eltlmlnedforcompliance with the l'8Qul~menlS,laerG on
the cDatina. a relativelyamaJlDumber of 'he .mcles. the sample!.is
scI~tcd II random and is hl3pected. The inspection 101as \hen classined
IS complying or not comptyiaa with dill requirem.nts baaed on the
resultsof ~heinspection af 11\,ample. The sl~eor ~hlfiIiIImpJe andIhe
,criteriaorcompliance .8111determined by the appllc:allon of stalistics.
TIle procaduR! is knownas amplin. Inspecr.ion.Thnte standards. Yesl
MethodB602,Guide8691. Incl MethodB '/62 <:011141"somplinaplans
that are desi8ned for the IIRlplins Inspecti(1I) of coatinf,$.

Tat Melhod B602contains(our umplinl plans, three for IIU wbh

TABLE & Corro.lon T..,. Appropri.tetorEachStryl~. COndition NUMbtr
NOT£ 1-The I~ed '"",1"" ISllspray IC'SI,TISI Melhod8117 "*' bIIenQlntlf'8I1yClIlCired1tlCllISan 1CCIII..111Id CORVSIon1151lor cJeconItlve "1cklf.d\romlURI

COllings IArge~ t1eC"4I1S.01 t.Ck 01"plodIICibifily 01 ,esulIS,"lIla r8cQgn1zed. ftOwlver. Ihllilhe tl"" tllU UHISIn 8OR'IIMglftllllt. 01Il1o l!Ic1rcpl8brlQ ,""u,.ry 10 CIIedc
11\. tju.fity 01 COII/J\gs 1t\lelldeG '011118 wn"" rellllvely II\ItI $Inrlct COIICIition1.~ly.111a SUOIIlltId ~I any u.. of IlIIt ttltllMlllf18 r8Q\riItmtmlS tu balMl De the
euajeel 1)1'egrll8lllQl\1 bet"'Mn 1118PJICh"" 1Mb manullClwrtr and. furthIII'. thai il8 we be canfinecl to the CDI'lrlQt IndIcaIld .. tppI~111' to' Serlica CQndIIIIII'II
Nos.2aI1d1. '

Non 2-Tne 'AC81ic;'s8lt Melhod 8287 has been 1IIscon1inl/ld.

8asIsMtI.I. 6eMco OnllianNO. ' Acetl(:ollllt MllhOd B 287CASt MIIhOdISH
SC5 44
SC 4 ft TWII18-1tCytIe& '144
~3 d ~ Hsca ... 1!4
SC1 8

,. MlndiUI. A...Slal'ldardSill.Spray Te'I-ls It. ValidAc:oeptance fe',? PropertJ... T'81111114PerfORnlrlC801 E~odeposl'lId M18lldUcCoatlnUI. ASTMSTP liT.
ASTM t8~G. p. 107.


SlteII, me. ,/loy.
Cr copper .rId

, g)Dpet IUoy


Caro8Ion-;:;11nd IJutaIlorl h

CIc:mIc1kOII Me\hocl B 380---,

6S11-268 S0S N3A31S .l'~ 81:21 S6. 61 lnr

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Page 6

0'7/19/95 09:54 DOCUMENTENGINEERING CO., INL;. ~ ::'\:j:::! C!:!;:: 11:::!~ I'~IJ. It:Jb t"""'" (" "'J.":

4. B 456
le5\s thaI An: n6n~e$tNttivt and one when thc)' II~ dcstNctivc. The
buyer and seller may asree on the plan Ot plans to b.! used. Ir they do
noi. Test Method.8 602 Identities the plan to used.

Guide B691 provides I carp number of plans and also a!ves ,uidanee
on the sell:l:lion of ~plan. When Ouidc 8 697 is sptl;incd. the b\lycr IInd
teller need to a&reoon the "llIn 10 be used.

Method B 762 ell" be used only for coatltlC requirements Ihat ha1lCa
nlimeriC41 IImi" such U C:OItinll thicknas. The lest must yield 11
n\lmericaJ value nnd "ruin slatisticaJ req\liremencs must be met.
Method B 762 contains Sl:vctal plans and also &ivC$instl'UctioRS for
ealeulatin. plan. to meet soeeiQJ needs. Tile buyer Illd UIosellet may
IlJtee on the pilln or plans to be USId.If lhay do not. 8 76.1 Identities Ihe
plan to be used.

NOTE 9-Whcn both destructivaand .nondatructivi testa exist ror
the mc~uremClnt of. c:haraCkris\ic. the purchaser needl to state which
is to be used SOIhe proper samplinl plan i5 scllcled. A test may. de"roy
the coatill8 but in a nonc:ritica1arca; Ot, althou8h it may desiroy the
coatlnL a lested part may be reclaiMed by sttippins and rec:oalJn.. The
purcllnscr needs to state whether the IC$tis to be considered destNctivc
or nondestftlctlve.

7.2 An insPectionlot shall be defined as Ii collection of
coatedarticlesthat are ot the same kind, that have beCD
producedto the same specifications,that havebeencoated
by It sin&.lesupplier at one time or approximately the same

time under essentially Identical conditions, ~nd that afft
submittedfor acceptanceor rejectionas a group.

7.3 If separatetestspecimensarc used 10 r.cpresent the
coated anlcles in a test. tbl~specimens shall be of the nature,
!!I~e,and number and be prcx:essedas tecluiredilt Appen-
dixesX2, X3, and X4. Unlessa needcanbedemonstrated.
separately prepared specimens shall not be used In place of
production items for nondestructive tests and visuIl1exami.
nation. for destructivetestS includins determination of ad.
hesion, ductility, sulfur contents. the number of discontlnu\.
ties, andcorrosiontestinl. separatelypn,pan:d specimens

I. Packagina
8.1 Pans plated for the:U.S. Oovemmentand military.

inc:ludinssubcontracts, shall bepackagedinaccordancewith
Practice D 39S 1.

9. K.)'Words

9.t corrosion:decorative;eiettrodeposited c:hromiumi
elec:uodeposited copper, electrode posited niCkel


(NonmandBtory InformatloQ)


. XI.I Service Condition No. SC j (Extended VII')' St-
vere)-Service conditions that include likely damaacfrom
dentin.. scratchJnl, and abrasive wear in addition to expo.-
sure to corrosive environments where long-time protection of
the substrate is required; for example, conditions encoun.
teredby Some"tenor componentsof automobiles. .

XI.2 COlldlttonNo. SC 4 (Very Severe)-Servlce condi.
tions that Il\clude1ikelydamagefrolll dentin.. scratchina,
and abrasivtIwc:prin addition to exposure10 corrosive
environmentSi for example, conditions encountered by ute.

. riorcomponentsQfautomobilesandbyboatnningsin salt
water service.

XI.) Se~/ct Condition No. SC j (Severe)-Exposure
that is likely to include oc:c:<a.sionai Ot tre~uel'lt w~tting by rain
or dew or possibly strona cleaners and saline 5Olutlons~for
exampic, conditionsencounteredby porch and lawn furni-
ture: bicycle and perambulator pan$i hClspitalfurniture and
fixtures. .

X 1.4ServiceConditic)1INo.SC2 (Modertlle)-ExpoSUrCI
indoorsin placeswherecondensationof nmisturemay
occur;forexampte,in kitchensandbathroom~.

X 1.5ServiceConditionNt).SC I (Mild)-Ey,posure in-
doorsin nannall)'warm,dry atmospheresv.-ithcoating
subjectto minimumwearor abrasion.


NOT!!XZ.I- lest is used 10 ensul'O cQmplianec or the typil or
topper and nickel>ositwitb !hI appropriale dlfinilian &i\'Cftin 6.4.

X2.' PreparationofTen Piece:
X2.i.l Prcpar~an electroplatedtest strip, ISOmm (onl.

10rnm wide,and 1 rom thick by the followingmethod:
X2. 1.1.l Polish a sheet or the appropriate basis metal,

similar to that of the a!ticles bein, electroplated, eJtcept that
If the basismota!is zincalloy.thesheetmay be:of softb~,
(Use a sheet sufficlentl)fIBraeto aJlow the test strip to be cut

~ from itScent$rafter trimmingofTa border25 mm wideall
around.r Electroplate the polished cide of the sheet with
copper or nickel to a thickness or 25 ~m under the same con.
ditions andin thesamebath 81the corresponding articles.

X2.J.J.2 Cut the te3t.$trip from the: cl~c:troplatcdshect

~- --

with a nat shear. Round or chamfer the longer edgtS of the
strip, at least on the electroplated side, by C41'I~fuIfiling 01'

X2.2 Procedure-Bend the test strip whh the electro-
plated side In tenGloG(C1I1the outside), by steadilyapplyins
pressure, through l80. over a mandrel of I LS mm diameter
until the Cwoends or the test strip are pa(;~lIel.Ensure that
contact between the test scripand the n,andrel illm~~ntained
durina bending.

X2.3 As.sessmenl-The electroplatlns is deemed 10
cOlUplywith the minimum requirement of an elongation of
8 % if after~"tina ther~are no cracksP8.&Sinacompletely
across the con\"exsurface. SmaJlcracksat theedgesdo not
slanity failllA:.

6S~~-268S0S N3A315 'l'~02:2~ S6. 6~ lnr


Page 10

~'(/l~/~~ ~~:~'( WI.UI'ICN I t:.Nl:J1Nl:.t:.1'<1Nt:! I.U., 1J'i"-'. "7 ~;J O='.:: .L.L;J;;J I',W. J.QQ nuJ.J.' "'.I.'

41Dt B 45&

X4.3 Asse.ssmenl:
X4.3.1 The numberor discontinuitiesin tho chromium

can be estimatedby countingthe:coppcrnodulesdeposited
within a known area of the specimen or the number of cracka
In a known leftlth. These determinations are facilitated with
a sncta11\lllicalmicroscopefittedwith a calibrated",ticle in
the eyepiece,Ot from pbotomicrosraphstakenof a ",presen-
tative field of the specimen. (See X4.4 for a pide to the.
detennination ot active: cOn'Osionsites in the chromium
layer.) .

X4.3.2 Currentmeasuredor recorded durina the cathodic
cycle,or both.servesas a reliableindi~tor of porosity,[(
current remains low «I mA/cm2) durina the cathodic cycle,
porosilY is low. Rapidly risins cumnt (6//41 = I to 2
mA/mln) and hip (2 to 4 mA/cm2) final current is
iddicati\'cof high porosity. Use of a strip chan recorder
provides a pennanent record of the test current. With
experience, direct counts of nodules of Cu deposited can be
reduced to periodic verifications as the f.r silDature. A
qualitative visual check (microscopically) will then sufficefor
re,loIlarroutine use.

Nora X4.t-b8le1 potentia).usedI, dependallton ancde~thcde
spacing.At IIdiS\anc:eof 8 1010em. 0.2 V usuallyproducestho desiRd
deposit.As ,pacinI incroaK' poI.ntlal can be Incl'O8$Od100.4 V.

NOT!!X4.2-Aner cleani"s. anodle rreatmellt to tepat.sivatt:chro-
miumIs essential.Platinatlm. cainbe varied(rom' to S min.Two
min1lteshASbeen found to he near optilnum.With hisht)' porous

.chromiuM. lonser times illeur risk Qr merlina the deposit nodules,
&ivln.rift to ambiluitin in cauntllli pores(nodules).

X4.3.3PrecQul/(ms-Do not exceed 0.6 V cathodic. High
cathodic potentials CAnactivat~ chromium loaIUy,8ivins risc
to spuriouslyhis.hnodulecounu. If this condition is sus-
pected, it can be tested by gently wiping the copper ofl'wlth a

..tissue. If copper adbe:m to specimen; it is probable the
cathodic potential was too hlah. tbus depositina copper on
the chromium instead or just i.- tho pores.


R, 1





EA- 2-1 + As

A,.R, ...R3

X4.4 Dwl.rmlnGlion of Acllve COIrQJionSit's By Corro-
sionTesling: .

X4.4.1 Before\estin& the part shoulci bq,cleanedto
eliminate wacer breaks. Mqneslum oxide. warm water and
soap, or solvents, or 8 combinat.ion therel)l~ tJ\iSht be
necessaryfor thorau&h cleaniu8.

X4.4.2To developthe ac;tive corrosion sitcm~subject the
part to the number of houn of CASS exposure corre--
spondln8 to the corrosion spedfication for tho required
service condition And thickness specification. After CASS
lestin,.ril15ethe part in warm waterto removeIhesaltlayer.
If the part contains corrosive product scaininn,it can be
washed with a very mild sponge in warm waterbut the paR
should not be. subjected 10 an)' abrasivecleaning. After
dryint either by hot air or solvent suchas n~ethanol.the pan
should be examined at a masnificAtion between100 and
2001.and the active pan: size Dnd densitydetermined.The
conadin, pore sites are typically distinctly latger than the
unconodcd sites Ind havea darker and roushertexture. By
means of photosraphsat I 'known magnification,the active
pore site$ can be counted and the "cUVt $it-CI.per Irea
calculated. Different photographs should be taken at the
same magnificationat all significantsurfacesand cunent
densities to recordthe ditrerencesin pore densityand size
after corrosion. As a auide, the: averaac dJanleter orthe active
sites should not exceed0,032 mm (0.00125 in.) and the
largest individual site should not exc«d 0.063Smm (0.0025
in.).Comparisonswith krJownpore densitychans can be '
usedfor determinationorthesiteSpersquarecenthnetre.

X4.4.3 Even thouah the nec:essary work has not been
conductedto estabUshacorrelationbetweenactivecorrosion
sitesand stanina aiteles measuredby DubpemeU. it appean
that for a givencurrentdensityand depositsystemthereis a
comlation between the number of poresbefor~corrosion
andthenumberoractive corrosion sites anerCASStestina.
Once this corrtlation he been establishedat a giveninstal.
lation, a simple 100 to 200 X viewina or a pan misht

s . 1.DPDr switCI'l
posilion 1 . cathodic
pasltlan 2 . anodic

Ec. Rs
. R + R + R NOT!: Ammeterand voltmcuercan. . ~ tie replacedbya 2 .ChannelSlr1p

chart recorder.

Schamlltle DI o. . 8"10111"8App.,.tua t6 ConvenlenllyCe/ltl'OIPOltlrltr81111Volta;. DUrI,,-Para.l" T.8t1nllVIIeo,ptt

Fla. X4.1


6£11-268 £0£ N3A3iS .l'~ L2:21 £6. 61 lnr

Page 11

""(/l~/:I:J IO:I:~I:I lJUUJMl::N1 I:.Nl:ilNl:.l:.l'<lN1:i ~U.I IN~. ~ ~~ t:!:;"c: ~l~~ I~U. J.t::IO t"IOJ..c:/IOJ..c:

. 1456

nond~tructiveJy indicate the service perfonnance of the pan
after carTasian. The desired number of active corrosion sites
has not been definitely established. This number depends
somewhaton the sizeof the poresbeforeandaftercorrosion.

the thicknessand potentialsor the d~J)ositIystem.and the
desired trade-off betwetenbasis metal corrosion and stainin,
in CASSo

TII' AmI,IeMl Sac/lly lor TNtlng and MII"I./s ,.k.. 110poJiI/oII fM/»Cllfl8111eIlllitJUy0I8IIJ' .,"" 11"", ual1tld In lItJII/ICll:I/ott
...IIh fII'/ /t,m /llt1l1/0llH in llIi. .,.~tI'tI. U8Ir. of tit" "IfIdllfl 81. .1IptNI/r IlMnd th.8r tI.,1tfffIInfI1OII fII .fIt rJ11(11tycf Illy .IICII
",lflll IIIfI'" IIJd flit litlt 01 W,/rIgamInI of '1Ia" tlQhll, '" 'III/IIIY .hllf own ftIPOIIIClIII//J.

1ft;' "lIItJIrd 1&allbj8cl to ,,1I1J/oItII 811;litnt by tfle ftIIptJI!.lb1. teeMl. "",,","It end mUll III mlMNd ftWty 1M y"" ",d
Ifnotrlftlled. ,II/Iff 'NPP'OtlttJor...ltM",*n. YIIIIICommtll/. 11. 1ft'll/lidIIrhtf tOl ffWI.1Ot'I01m/ft,tw"" orIll'fdtll/II)I'II/lllI1dt/(f,
an~ ,"ovItI btI .tl6na8tJ 10 ASTM I/NdqLlllf".. VO/,/,oOlMltIll,winftCl/'tt Utetut OCIIIlldtratfon., . r/Ifellnt oJ"'" nllWit/bio
tllOllnlc81 QQmmtnH. wlrlcll JfOIIm.yan'lId. II ycu 1881Ih" ruur ~r. haV8 tIOIllCllvIft . "" NfI/lIQrw ,fIouIdfNkI '/OfII
II",",,! It"",,, 10 111.AIm Corrtmilr- 0/1Sll/Irll1d., fff8 AIel St.. PtlJlJtllIpIIl.. PA flt03.




(;qIYI' f,mericanSocie~yfor Testing
:md Matori<ltE(ASTM).1916 RaCI!Streel,
~hiladclphia.PA 19103. UnitedStatesof
DocumentEnp,ineeringCo.,Inc. underlicanse


v't'd 6S~~-268 S0S N3A315 'l'~ 82:2~ S6, 6~ lnr

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