Download ASTM E1444-E1444M-16e1 Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Testing PDF

TitleASTM E1444-E1444M-16e1 Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Testing
TagsMagnetic Field Inductor Ultraviolet Electromagnetic Induction Nondestructive Testing
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Designation: E1444/E1444M − 16´1

Standard Practice for
Magnetic Particle Testing1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation E1444/E1444M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.

ε1 NOTE—Summary of Changes updated editorially in July 2016.

1. Scope*

1.1 This practice establishes minimum requirements for
magnetic particle testing used for the detection of surface or
slightly subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic material.
Guide E709 can be used in conjunction with this practice as a
tutorial.

NOTE 1—This Practice replaces MIL-STD-1949.

1.2 The magnetic particle testing method is used to detect
cracks, laps, seams, inclusions, and other discontinuities on or
near the surface of ferromagnetic materials. Magnetic particle
testing may be applied to raw material, billets, finished and
semi-finished materials, welds, and in-service parts. Magnetic
particle testing is not applicable to non-ferromagnetic metals
and alloys such as austenitic stainless steels. See Appendix X1
for additional information.

1.3 All areas of this Practice may be open to agreement
between the Cognizant Engineering Organization and the
supplier, or specific direction from the Cognizant Engineering
Organization.

1.4 This standard is a combined standard, an ASTM stan-
dard in which rationalized SI units and inch-pound units are
included in the same standard, with each system of units to be
regarded separately as standard.

1.4.1 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-
pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The
values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents;
therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other.
Combining values from the two systems may result in non-
conformance with the standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-

priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2. Referenced Documents

2.1 The following documents form a part of this standard
practice to the extent specified herein.

2.2 ASTM Standards:2

A275/A275M Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination of
Steel Forgings

A456/A456M Specification for Magnetic Particle Examina-
tion of Large Crankshaft Forgings

E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive
Testing

E709 Guide for Magnetic Particle Testing
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
E2297 Guide for Use of UV-A and Visible Light Sources and

Meters used in the Liquid Penetrant and Magnetic Particle
Methods

E3022 Practice for Measurement of Emission Characteris-
tics and Requirements for LED UV-A Lamps Used in
Fluorescent Penetrant and Magnetic Particle Testing

2.3 ASNT Documents:3

SNT-TC-1A Recommended Practice No. “Personnel Quali-
fication and Certification in Nondestructive Testing

ANSI/ASNT CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certifi-
cation of NDT Personnel

2.4 Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)-AMS
Documents:4,5

AMS 2641 Magnetic Particle Inspection Vehicle

1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E07 on Nonde-
structive Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.03 on Liquid
Penetrant and Magnetic Particle Methods.

Current edition approved June 1, 2016. Published June 2016. Originally
approved in 1991. Last previous edition approved in 2012 as E1444 - 12. DOI:
10.1520/E1444_E1444M-16ϵ1.

2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at [email protected] For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.

3 Available from American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), P.O. Box
28518, 1711 Arlingate Ln., Columbus, OH 43228-0518, http://www.asnt.org.

4 Copies of standards, specifications, drawings, and publications required by
manufacturers in connection with specification acquisition should be obtained from
the contracting activity or as directed by the contracting officer.

5 Available from SAE International (SAE), 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale,
PA 15096-0001, http://www.sae.org.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States

1



http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/A0275_A0275M
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/A0275_A0275M
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/A0456_A0456M
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/A0456_A0456M
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E0543
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E0543
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E0709
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E1316
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E2297
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E2297
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E2297
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E3022
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E3022
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/E3022
http://www.astm.org/COMMIT/COMMITTEE/E07.htm
http://www.astm.org/COMMIT/SUBCOMMIT/E0703.htm

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AMS 3040 Magnetic Particles, Nonfluorescent, Dry
Method

AMS 3041 Magnetic Particles, Nonfluorescent, Wet
Method, Oil Vehicle, Ready-To-Use

AMS 3042 Magnetic Particles, Nonfluorescent, Wet
Method, Dry Powder

AMS 3043 Magnetic Particles, Nonfluorescent, Wet
Method, Oil Vehicle, Aerosol Packaged

AMS 3044 Magnetic Particles, Fluorescent, Wet Method,
Dry Powder

AMS 3045 Magnetic Particles, Fluorescent, Wet Method,
Oil Vehicle, Ready-To-Use

AMS 3046 Magnetic Particles, Fluorescent, Wet Method,
Oil Vehicle, Aerosol Packaged5

AMS 5062 Steel, Low Carbon Bars, Forgings, Tubing,
Sheet, Strip, and Plate 0.25 Carbon, Maximum

AMS 5355 Investment Castings
AMS I-83387 Inspection Process, Magnetic Rubber
AMS 2175 Castings, Classification and Inspection of
AS 4792 Water Conditioning Agents for Aqueous Magnetic

Particle Inspection
AS 5282 Tool Steel Ring Standard for Magnetic Particle

Inspection
AS 5371 Reference Standards Notched Shims for Magnetic

Particle Inspection

2.5 Federal Standards:4,6

FED-STD-313 Material Safety Data Sheets, Preparation and
the Submission of

FED-STD-595 Colors

2.6 Military Standards:4,6

MIL-STD 45562A Calibration Systems Requirements
A-A-59230 Fluid, Magnetic Particle Inspection, Suspension

2.7 OSHA Document:7

29 CFR 1910.1200 Hazard Communication

2.8 ANSI Document:4,8

ANSI/NCSL Z 540-1 General Requirement for Calibration
Laboratories and Measuring Test Equipment

2.9 ISO Document:
ISO 10012-1 Measurement Management Systems—

Requirements for Measurement Processes and Measuring
Equipment9

2.10 AIA Document:
NAS 410 NAS Certification and Qualification of Nonde-

structive Test Personnel10

2.11 DoD Contracts—Unless otherwise specified, the edi-
tions of the documents that are DoD adopted are those listed in
the issue of the DoDISS (Department of Defense Index of
Specifications and Standards) cited in the solicitation.

2.12 Order of Precedence—In the event of conflict between
the text of this practice and the referenced documents cited
herein, the text of this practice takes precedence.

3. Terminology

3.1 Definitions—The definitions relating to magnetic par-
ticle testing, which appear in Terminology E1316, shall apply
to the terms used in this practice.

4. Significance and Use

4.1 Description of Process—Magnetic particle testing con-
sists of magnetizing the area to be examined, applying suitably
prepared magnetic particles while the area is magnetized, and
subsequently interpreting and evaluating any resulting particle
accumulations. Maximum detectability occurs when the dis-
continuity is positioned on the surface and perpendicular to the
magnetic flux.

4.2 This practice establishes the basic parameters for con-
trolling the application of the magnetic particle testing method.
This practice is written so that it can be specified on the
engineering drawing, specification, or contract. It is not a
detailed how-to procedure to be used by the examination
personnel and, therefore, must be supplemented by a detailed
written procedure that conforms to the requirements of this
practice.

5. General Practice

5.1 Personnel Qualification—Personnel performing exami-
nations in accordance with this practice shall be qualified and
certified in accordance with ASNT Recommended Practice No.
SNT-TC-1A, ANSI/ASNT Standard CP-189, NAS 410, or as
specified in the contract or purchase order.

5.2 Agency Qualification—If specified in the contractual
agreement, NDT agencies shall be qualified and evaluated as
described in E543. The applicable edition of E543 shall be
specified in the contractual agreement.

5.3 Written Procedure—Magnetic particle testing shall be
performed in accordance with a written procedure applicable to
the part or group of parts under examination. The procedure
shall be in accordance with the requirements of this Practice.
The process, when conducted in accordance with the written
procedure, shall be capable of detecting discontinuities speci-
fied in the acceptance criteria. The written procedure may be
general if it clearly applies to all of the specified parts being
examined and meets the requirements of this practice. All
written procedures, including technique sheets for specific
parts, shall be approved by an individual qualified and certified
at Level III for magnetic particle testing in accordance with the
requirements of 5.1. Procedures shall be submitted to the
Cognizant Engineering Organization for review, or approval,
or both, when requested.

6 Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4,
Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098, http://
dodssp.daps.dla.mil.

7 Available from U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents,
732 N. Capitol St., NW, Mail Stop: SDE, Washington, DC 20401, http://
www.access.gpo.gov.

8 Available from National Conference of Standards Laboratories, 1800 30th St.
Suite 305b, Boulder, CO. 80301.

9 Available from International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1, ch. de
la Voie-Creuse, CP 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, http://www.iso.org.

10 Available from Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. (AIA), 1000
Wilson Blvd., Suite 1700, Arlington, VA 22209-3928, http://www.aia-aerospace.org.

E1444/E1444M − 16´1

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FIG. A2.1 Shims for Magnetic Particle Testing

FIG. A2.2 Shims for Magnetic Particle Testing

FIG. A2.3 Shims for Magnetic Particle Testing

E1444/E1444M − 16´1

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A3. FLEXIBLE LAMINATED STRIPS FOR MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING

A3.1 Flexible laminated strips are typically used to ensure
proper field direction during magnetic particle testing. The
longitudinal axis of the strip should be placed perpendicular to
the direction of the magnetic field of interest in order to
generate the strongest particle indications on the strip.

A3.1.1 The strips are available in two types, General Use
and Aerospace Use. Both types of strip contain a steel layer
sandwiched between two brass plates that are 0.0020 in.
[0.0508 mm] thick. The bottom brass layer acts as a lift-off of
0.0020 in. [0.0508 mm] from the examination surface. The
brass is non-magnetic and functions only to provide lift-off and
to protect the steel layer. The entire strip may have a polymeric
coating for further protection.

A3.1.2 The longitudinal dimension of the strips is 1.95 in.
[50 mm] and the width of the strip is 0.47 in. [12 mm].

A3.1.3 Both types of strips contain three longitudinal slots
in the center steel layer.

A3.1.3.1 The widths of the slots in the General strip are
0.0075 in. [0.1905 mm], 0.009 in. [0.2286 mm], and 0.010 in.
[0.254 mm].

A3.1.3.2 The widths of the slots in the Aerospace strip are
0.003 in. [0.0762 mm], 0.004 in. [0.1016 mm] and 0.005 in.
[0.127 mm].

A3.1.4 The center steel layer of the strips is made of a high
“µ” magnetic material.

A3.1.5 Strips shall be placed in the area(s) of interest part or
surface being examined. Use enough strips, or place the strips
in multiple areas to ensure that proper field directions are
obtained.

A3.2 Instructions for the Use of Flexible Laminated Strips

A3.2.1 Application of Strips
Flexible laminated strips, as shown in Annex A3, require
specific handling, attachment, and care for accurate indication
of magnetic field direction.

A3.2.2 Strips are manufactured of high permeability carbon
steel and must be protected from corrosion when not in use.
They should be stored in a dry location. Before placing the
strip onto the part, both the strip and part shall be clean and dry.

A3.2.3 The strip shall be placed in intimate contact with
material to be examined. The strip may be held in place
manually or with the use of an adhesive or tape.

A3.2.3.1 If the strip is to be fastened to the part by using an
adhesive or tape select one (such as Scotch Brand 191, 471, or

600 series) that prevents the magnetic particle suspension from
entering between the strip and part.

A3.2.3.2 Tape may be used to secure the strip and shall have
the following properties: (1) good adhesion to steel, (2)
impervious to the suspension used, and (3) the tape shall be
non-fluorescent (for fluorescent suspensions).

A3.2.3.3 If the tape becomes loose, allowing the suspension
to seep under the strip, the tape and strip shall be carefully
removed, the strip and the part shall be cleaned and the strip
shall be reattached.

A3.2.3.4 Any tape or adhesive used to secure the strip to the
part shall neither cover nor interfere with the visibility of the
indications.

A3.2.4 Re-use of the strips is acceptable, provided they are
not distorted when removed and intimate contact is achieved
when replaced.

A3.2.5 Use care when applying the suspension to the strips.
Proper strip indications may not form unless the suspension is
applied in a gentle manner.

A3.2.6 The active center layer of the strips are made of a
low retentivity and high permeability material. Use of the strips
in verifying the presence of residual magnetic fields can only
be made with approval of the Cognizant Engineering Organi-
zation.

A3.2.7 Determining Field Direction
Strips provide the strongest particle indications on the three
lines when positioned such that the longitudinal axis of the
strip is perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. A strip
whose longitudinal axis is parallel to the applied field will not
provide any particle indications. Refer to Fig. A3.3 and Fig.
A3.4.

A3.2.7.1 To use the strips to determine field direction, first
determine the location(s) for the strip(s) to be placed.

A3.2.7.2 Position a strip onto the surface so that it is
perpendicular to the direction of the applied magnetic field.

(1) A second strip may be placed perpendicular to the first.
A3.2.7.3 Using the continuous method, begin by starting the

amperage selection at a minimum level and increasing the
amperage slowly until the indications of the lines in one or both
strip(s) are readily observed.

A3.2.7.4 If both strips show particle indications, the applied
field is at an angle of between 30° to 60° to them. If no

FIG. A3.1 The longitudinal lines represent the location of the
slots cut into the center steel layer of either the General or Aero-

space flexible laminated strips.

FIG. A3.2 A cross-sectional view illustrates the magnetic leakage
flux generated by the slots in the central steel layer of a flexible
laminated strip exposed to a magnetic field perpendicular to the

strip axis.

E1444/E1444M − 16´1

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NOTE 1—Only a changing magnetic field will generate a resulting eddy current in the ring-shaped part, such as when the magnetic field in the
magnetizing coil suddenly collapses, or when using a moving waveform such as AC; no eddy current is produce in the part by a non-moving waveform.
The resultant toroidal shaped magnetic field may be used to detect circumferential discontinuities in the part.

FIG. X5.2 Example of Induced Current Magnetization

FIG. X5.1 Pie-field Indicator for Use in Magnetic Particle Testing

E1444/E1444M − 16´1

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SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee E07 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (E1444 - 12)
that may impact the use of this standard. (June 1, 2016)

(1) Added E3022 to the list of Referenced Documents.
(2) Revised subsections 5.6.4, 7.3.2, and 7.4.5.1 to incorporate
E3022.

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E1444/E1444M − 16´1

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