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TitleCanaanite Myths and Legends
File Size10.4 MB
Total Pages189
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Title page
Preface to the first edition
Preface to the second edition
Contents
Concordance of tablets
Select Bibliography
Introduction
	A. The discovery of the tablets
	B. Analysis and interpretation of the texts
		1. Baal and Yam
		2. The palace of Baal
		3. Baal and Mot
		4. Keret
		5. Aqhat
		6. Shachar and Shalim and the gracious gods
		7. Nikkal and the Kotharat
		8. The texts in the appendix (brief notes)
Transliteration and translation of the texts
	1. Baal and Yam
	2. The palace of Baal
	3. Baal and Mot
	4. Keret
	5. Aqhat
	6. Shachar and Shalim and the gracious gods
	7. Nikkal and the Kotharat
	8. Appendix: Fragmentary and recently discovered texts
Note on the phonology of Ugaritic
Glossary
Biblical and other references
	Hebrew Bible
	Apocrypha
	New Testament
	Other References
Addenda
Table of Ugaritic signs
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

CANAANITE MYTHS
AND LEGENDS

Page 94

BAAL AND MOT (5 v, vi)

Col. vi
73

3*[ldk.lttn.pnm]
2*['m.H.mbk.nhrm]
i*[qrb.ipq.thmtm]
i [tgly.id.il.]

[w]t6[a](2)[qrs-.mlk.ab.]/»m

3 [t§i.ghm.wts]A.
sbn (4) [y. 'd. q]s[m. ars. ]
dk(5)kfl».m/t)rt[.J

[m]&ny (6) In'my.drf.dbr
7 lysmt.id.lhlmmt

8 m^ny. Ib'l. npl. W (9) r;.

mt.dttyn.b'l
10 hlq.zbl.b'l.drf
11 "dpnk.ltpn.il (12) dptd.

yrd.lksl.ytb(i$lhdm[.]

[w]l.hdm.ytb(i4)ldr;[.]

ysq.'mr(i^)^n.]riih,
'pr.pllt (16) l.qdqdh.
IpS.yki (17) mlzrtm.
$r.bdbn(i8)ydy.
psltm.by't

19 yhdy.lhm.todqn
20 ^ft-jn.^'^.]

>/irt(2i)%n.<J/)/6.
k'mq.ytU (22)bmt.
y&.gh[,]ioy&

23 b'l.mt.

[Then indeed they set (their) faces]
[towards El at the source(s) of the rivers],
[amid the springs of the two oceans];
[they penetrated the mountains) of Ei]
[and] entered [the massif of the king, the father] of

years.1

[They lifted up their voices and cried]:
'We [two]* did go round [to the edges of the earth],
'to the limits of the watery region.*
'We two did reach "Pleasure"4 the land of pasture(s),
4 "Delight"4 the fields by the shore of the realm of

death.
'We two did happen upon Baal;6 he had fallen to the

ground.
'Mightiest Baal is dead,*
'the prince lord of earth has perished!'
Thereupon Latipan kindly god
did come down from (his) throne (and) did sit7 on the

footstool,
[and] (he did come down) from the footstool (and) did

sit on the ground.'
He poured straw* of mourning on his head,
dust of wallowing on his crown;10

for clothing he covered himself11 with sackcloth;12

he scraped (his) skin with a stone,
with a flint for1* a razor
he shaved (his) side-whiskers and beard;14

he harrowed15 his collar-bone,"
he ploughed (his) chest17 like a garden,
he harrowed (his) waist18 like a valley.1*
He lifted up his voice and cried:
'Baal is dead)

3»-i*, i-3:cp. 3E 13-16 41720-24 6132-36,39
3 sbn[y]: cp. [m]frty (5)
4: cp. 16 iii 3; 'dk prob. error for 'd (dittography of k)
5 mhyf. cp. miyt (16 iii 4); [m]&ny: cp. 6 ii 19
7,12,15: these lines transgress the margin with col. v

1 See on this passage at 3 E 13**.
1 Sc. Gupn and Ugar. The ending is dual.
' See at 16 iii 3-4 where there is a fuller text.
4 Euphemisms as in 4 viii 7.
1 It is of course the surrogate borne by the heifer

(v 22) that they have found.
• Cp. i Kgs. xxii 37 (LXX) Pi. Ixxxii 7.
' Cp. Isa. xlvii i Jer. xlviii 18.
• Cp. Ezek. xxvi 16.
• The meaning required is nearer the Mishnaic

'hay, fodder' than the biblical 'sheaves'.
11 Cp. Ezek. xxvii 30.
" Cp. Ps. civ 6.
11 Lit. 'loin-cloth'. Cp. Amos viii 10 etc.
11 An example of what is called in Hebr. Beth

Esientiae.
M Cp. ANET p. 88 (Gilgamesh mourning for

Enkidu) Isa. xv 2 Mic. i 16 Jer. xlviii 37.
11 Lit. 'did for a third time', clearly a technical

term for a third ploughing or harrowing.
11 Lit. 'humeral bone of his arm'.
" Lit. 'front (nose) of (his) heart'.
11 Lit. 'back' or 'torso'; cp. 3 B 12.
11 Poetic descriptions of the cutting of flesh (cp.

i Kgs. xviii 28 Jer. xvi 6 etc.); for a similar metaphor
see Ps. cxxix 3.

Page 95

CANAANITE MYTHS AND LEGENDS

my.lim.bn (24) dgn.
my.hmlt.
dtr (25) b'l.drd.bdr;.
dp(2b)'nt.ttlk.wtfd.
kl.fr (27) Ikbd.drs.
kl.gb' (28) l[k]W.Mm.
tmg.ln'm\y] (29) [irs.]dbr.
ysmt.id(p) [$hl] mmt.

<K.]ft'/.«;[l](3i)[li]rs[.]

[IpS]. tks.miz[rtm]

'What1 (will become) of the people of Dagon's son,
'what of (his) multitudes?
'After Baal* I would go down into the earth.1

(Then) Anat also went to and fro and scoured
every rock to the heart of the earth,
every hill to the heart of the fields.
She reached 'Pleasure* [the land] of pasture(s),
'Delight' the fields [by the shore] of the realm of

death;
she [happened upon] Baal; he had fallen [to] the

ground.
[For clothing] she covered herself with sackcloth;

1 Ib'l
2 $r.bdb(n).td[.]

[ps]Um[.by'r]
3 thdy.lhm.wdqn[.]

[ttlt](4) qn.Sr'h.
thrt.km.gn($)dplb.
k'mq.ttlt.bmt

6 **/.««.
my.lim.bn dgn

7 my.hmlt.
dtr.b'l.nrd(B)bdrf.
'mh.trd.nrt(<))ilm.!pi.
'd.tib'.bk

10 tit.kyn.udm't.
gm(ii)t;h.lnrt.Um.ip!

12 'ms m'.ly.dliyn.b'l
13 tim.nrt.tlm.api
14 fAi <%n.W.

lktp(i$)'nt.kt<!th.
tnynh(i6)bfrrt.fp'n.
tbkynh (17) wtqbrnh.
t!tnn.bhrt(iB)ttm.dr}.
ttbh.fb'm(i<))rumm.
kgmn.dliyn (2o)[b]V.

Col. i
Of Baal
she scraped (her) skin with a stone,
with a flint [for a razor]
she shaved (her) side-whiskers and beard;3

[she harrowed] her collar-bone,
she ploughed (her) chest like a garden,
she harrowed (her) waist like a valley, (saying):
'Baal is dead!
'What (will become) of the people of Dagon's son,
'what of (his) multitudes?
'After Baal we would go down into the earth.'
Shapash the luminary of the gods came down to her,4

as she sated herself with weeping
(and) drank tears5 like wine.
She cried aloud to Shapash the luminary of the gods:
'Hoist, I beseech you, mightiest Baal on to me.'
Shapash the luminary of the gods obeyed,
she lifted up mightiest Baal,
she surely put him on to the shoulder of Anat,
(and) she took him up to the recesses of Zephon;
she wept for him and buried him,
she put him in a hole of the earth-gods.'
She slew seventy wild oxen
as a 'for mightiest Baal,

28-31: cp. 5-9 6 ii 17,19-20
31: cp. 16-17
2-3: cp. 5 vi 17-20
6: notice b with three vertical wedges
7 nrd perhaps error for drd (Bauer; cp. 5 vi 25)
16 fp'n error for fpn (confusion with Ip'n (?) or ' is an

unintentional stroke)

1 Cp. Ruth iii 16.
1 Cp. Gen. xxxvii 35. Alternatively 'the multi-

tude(s) of Baal's shrine' (lit. 'place').
' Probably conventional terminology (cp, 5 vi 19

of El), though bearded goddesses are not unknown in
mythology.

* Hardly 'went down with her* into the nether-
world, since Shapash has not previously been with
Anat and in any case the dead body to be buried was
lying on the ground.

• Cp. Ps. Ixxx 6. « See at 5 v 5-6.
' The meaning of this word is unknown.

74

6

Page 188

A 1 8 ml error for nht
B 7 brkn error for ybrkn

10 AA ioty
it) and
20 /; error for //
23 tf erased at end
25 bs0

22

3 N"«
4 'rp (error for r'r/>; cp. 6)
6 t'rp
8 tdn error for (nn

10 Ibnt
n (i'n.sst
14 r/im

PRU II no. 3

i 'nn error for 'n*
RS 22.225

Ugaritica V
1 obv. 5 Am.klb

8 (Ap)
11 ktp: the /> is written over an erased letter
12 pn (error for hn).lm.rlb (error for Mb)
14 //.wl
21 //.Am mt

rev. 2 *«i.[a]hdA
3 Atm.rr/iJ.An n'r

2 obv. 2 [11.]
6 #rr error for gtrt
9 [bsm]m rm (error for rmm)

10 jj]mr
15 ] - rsp

rev. 7 bimrh: the A is written over an erased /
8-9 r[p]i

3 obv. 7 bf
rev. 2 ]l?r.iir[

4 obv. 2 «/>sm
4 fAwf
6: before fbit a letter is erased

13 rm«

i8 bibn
No. 7 19 '/ error for 'm

65 yn'rdh error for yn'rnh
68 b<m)t
73 tn.km. <mhry. >

Further Bibliography:

L. Badre and others, 'Notes ougaritiques I Keret',
Syria 53 (1976), 95-125

W. Beyerlin (ed.)t Religionsgeschichtliches Textbuch
zum Allen Testament (Gottingen 1975) (selections)

C. M. Bowra, Heroic Poetry (London 1966) (omitted
from bibliogr. sect. 7)

J. Clear, Ugaritic Texts in Translation (N.E. Dept.,
Univ. of Washington, Seattle 1976)

P. C. Craigie (ed.), Ugaritic Studies 2972-1976
(Reprint of the 'Newsletter for Ugaritic Studies'
nos. i-io) (Calgary, Alberta 1976)

R. C. Culley (ed.), 'Oral tradition and Old Testament
Studies', Serneia 5 (1976) (see also Culley's earlier
book Oral Formulaic Language in the Biblical
Psalms [Toronto 1967])

J. Heler, 'Die Entymythisierung des ugaritischen
Pantheons im A.T.', Theol. Lit. 101 (1976) cols.
2-10

I. Jacobs, 'Elements of Near-Eastern mythology in
Rabbinic Aggadah', J. Jew St. 27 (1977), i-i i

E. Lipiiiski in Orient. Lov. Per. 3 (1972), 106-109
[on CTA 13] (omitted from bibliogr. sect, sh)

J. C. De Moor 'Rapi'uma-Rephaim', ZAW3& (1976),
323-345

R. A. Oden, 'The persistence of Canaanite religion',
Bibl. Arch. 39 (1976), 31-36

W. E. G. Watson, 'Puzzling passages in the Aqhat
tale', UP 8 (forthcoming)

W. R. Walters, Formula Criticism and the Poetry of
the Old Testament (Berlin 1976)

R. E. Whitaker, A Formulaic Analysis of Ugaritic
Poetry, Unpublished Dissertation of Harvard
University (I owe this reference to Mr Kenneth
Aitken)

ADDENDA 167

Page 189

TABLE OF UGARITIC SIGNS
Column I gives the order in which letters appear in Ugaritic abecedaries (see CTA 186: PRU II nos. 184, 185;

Dietrich and others, Die keilalph. Texte nos. 5.4 and 5.6).
Sign no. 30 is not used in the mythological texts.

1

(28)

(29)

2

3

5

<i6 )

6

7

8

9

(4)

10

(18)

i i

12

14

'5

I?

19

(30)

20

(26)

21

22

23

24

(•3)

27

(25)

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