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TitleChapter II Theoretical Framework
TagsPhonetics Syntax Phonology Self
File Size167.7 KB
Total Pages25
Table of Contents
                            CHAPTER II
Document Text Contents
Page 2


speaking ability is determining his/her successful career. Speaking can be a great

unifier for social groups in the society. In many cases, the problems that faced by

two individuals or groups are solved with communication/speaking.

H. G. Tarigan noted that “speaking is language skill which develops in

child’s life and always started with listening skill.”1 He also defined that

“speaking is a skill of conveying words or sounds of articulation to express or to

deliver ideas, opinions, or feelings.”2 He added “speaking is a human’s behaviour

which exploits physical, psychological, neurological, semantic, linguistic factors

extensively, so it’s considered as the most important tool in human’s social


Mackey stated in his book, ”Speaking is the most complex of linguistics

skill, since it involves thinking of what is to be said while saying what has been


Speaking skill basically must be possessed of all men who need

communication in their activity, in one-directional-communication or multi-

directional-communication. A man who has great speaking skill is usually finds

easy of his relationship with the other. With his ability, every ideas, opinions or

feelings which stated are easy to be received, so the communication that he made

sets everyone at ease.

Weaver, Borchers and Smith had a notion in their book, “speaking is an

aspect of human behaviour, and it is learned behaviour in the same sense that

handwriting, spelling, or table manners are learned behaviour even though skills

1 Henry Guntur Tarigan, Berbicara Sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa, (Bandung,
Angkasa, 1985), p.3

2 Ibid. p. 15
3 Ibid. p. 21
4 W. F. Mackey, Language Teaching Analysis, (London, Longman, 1978), p. 263

Page 24


learning process. Burns39 states that self confident always develop as long as

human life. Furthermore Cooley40 mentions that self confident is formed through

learning process.

Self confident develops throughout our lives as we build a self image

through our experiences with different people and activities. Experiences during

childhood play role in shaping our basic self confident. The way we are treated by

families, teachers, friends, and society, and the way we face our success and

failure when we are growing up, give a contribution to create our self confident.

As Hurlock states that the development process of self confident started from

when human was born, continue until his/her age is 6-8 months old, and when

his/her age is 3-5 years old, the person starts to identify him/her self about age,

body size, sex, and other.41 In this face which Allport 42 called as early self face,

someone also tries to give simple respond to others.

The process is more complicated in schooling age. It is because of

socialization, and interaction process with others. And the most complex face is

adolescent. Hurlock mentions that adolescent face is the important face to find out

and set up one’s self confident. If someone receives positive perception or regards

from others, he/she may regard his/her self highly which also can shape his/her

positive self confident.43

In brief, self confident is formed from learning process through feedback

from others and environment, experience (both childhood and growing up),

education, interaction and socialization process.

39 Ibid.
40 Ibid.
41 Hurlock, B. Elizabeth. 1980. Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: Erlangga. P. 56
42 Ibid.
43 Hurlock B. Elizabeth….. p. 77

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