Download Claire Price-Rebirth of Turkish Nation-1923.pdf PDF

TitleClaire Price-Rebirth of Turkish Nation-1923.pdf
Tags Treaty Constantinople Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Turkey
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Total Pages276
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Page 138

110 THE REBIRTH OF TURKEY

and removed to British keeping at Enzeli on the

Persian coast. Opposite Baku on the
eastern

coast of the Caspian, the East Persia
Cordon de

tached from Askabad a small garrison for Kras-

novodsk, and Persia was now not only held by
British and Indian forces but all its approaches,

from north, south, east and west, were in the same

hands.

In Denikin's rear, General Milne at Constanti

nople now commanded a single British
front which

crossed Trans-Caucasia from Batum to Baku,

which made a British lake of the Caspian, and

which extended into Central Asia from Krasnovodsk

to Askabad and the Merv oasis. Over all of it, the

double-headed eagle of Czarist Russia had waved

only a year before.
Behind this truly remarkable

front, railway projects were speedily envisaged by

which the new British Arabia, British Persia and

British Trans-Caucasia were to be firmly bound to

each other and to British India, a Bagdad-Teheran-

Enzeli line to develop Enzeli into a British naval

base which should command the Caspian, and a

Batum-Kars-Tabriz-Duzdap line to fetch the fron

tiers of British India to the Black Sea as they had

already been fetched to Haifa on the Mediterran

ean. The Cape-to-Cairo-to-Calcutta triangle had
not only been made good, but the collapse of

Czarist Russia had made the British a present of

the Constantinople-Kabul line in addition. British

officers were glum with expectation.
Sir Percy Cox, chief political officer of the Meso-

potamian Expeditionary Force, was dispatched to

Teheran as British Minister as soon as the Mudros
armistice brought the war to an end on the Meso-

Page 139

ANGLO-RUSSIAN WAR OF 1918-'20 111

potamia front, and began formulating the Anglo-
Persian Agreement at once. Persia had then been
swallowed whole by the British. The North Persia
Force was paying 350,000 tomans a month (roughly
$800,000) to keep the Persian Government in

being and 100,000 tomans a month to keep the old
Cossack Division quiet. Under these conditions,
Sir Percy Cox began negotiations in January, 1919,
with three Persian grandees and by June the Agree
ment was ready to be signed. It provided for a
British loan of 2,000,000 to the Persian Govern
ment and for British advisers in the Persian Minis
tries. Briefly, it had the effect of reducing Persia
to another of the British Indian frontier States. It

was finally approved by the British Foreign Office
and was signed by the three Persians on August 9.
It had been drawn up secretly and no public
announcement of its signature was made until

August 15, when it was announced simultaneously
that the Shah had left for a prolonged tour in

Europe. It was to take effect as soon as the Per
sian Parliament ratified it. At the moment the
Parliament was not in session, the deputies having
left Teheran in 1915, intending to re-assemble at
Kum to follow the Ottoman Empire into war
against the Anglo-Russian entente.

Meanwhile the East Persia Cordon regularized
the position of its garrisons in Meshed and Merv
by styling them "Afghan Consulates-General under
armed guard." It will be recalled that the Amir
Habibullah Khan of Afghanistan, a wild country
which tilts up to the roof of the world above the
north-west frontier of India, had stuck loyally to
the British despite a fiery nationalist party which

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