Download D. P.walker Spiritual and Demonic Magic From Ficino to Campanella PDF

TitleD. P.walker Spiritual and Demonic Magic From Ficino to Campanella
Tags Philosophical Science Soul Magic (Paranormal) Hermeticism
File Size11.4 MB
Total Pages258
Document Text Contents
Page 1

SPIRITUAL
& DEMONIC

MAGIC
from Ficino

to Campanella

D.P. W A L K E R

Page 2

Spiritual
& Demonic

magic

Page 129

116 IV. SIXTEENTH CENTURY

any practical use of celestial music. The main importance of
music for him is as the source of a vast, all-embracing scheme of
mathematical analogies. Moreover, many of these analogies are
not truly mathematical, but numerological, that is to say, he is
not showing that every part of the universe is constructed on the
same complex system of proportions (those of musical intervals),
but is collecting analogies between sets of things whose only-
manifest common characteristic is their number. The signs of the
zodiac, for example, and the apostles must in some way be connect­
ed because there arc twelve of each; Giorgi then finds some
characteristic in the Hebrew name of each apostle which resembles
some characteristic of each sign of the zodiac1. The starting-point
of this analogy-making is the identity of number, and the further
making of secondary analogies is quite uncontrolled and unregul­
ated; the apostles and signs do not correspond in every respect
or in any regularly determined respect. These analogies then lead
nowhere, either in theory or practice. The knowledge that Matthew
corresponds to the Watercarrier in any old way tells us nothing
new about cither, and suggests no practical operation. If, on the
other hand, we know that the distances between the planets and
their differences of motion correspond to the intervals of the
scale and the proportions of musical consonances, we may, in
theory, deduce the former from the latter, and, in practice, we may,
by using similarly proportioned music attract the influence of
certain planets, since such identities of proportion arc physically
active, as is proved by the sympathetic vibration of strings.
Giorgi uses this mrksame, operative kind of analogy as well; but
his frequent use of the idle, inoperative kind shows that in general
he was not interested in analogies as instruments for some further
theoretical or practical operations, but was collecting them because
he liked them for their own sake and because they were evidence
of an order in the universe—the order of a dictionary, not that
of a building or an organic body. This idle, numerological kind

1 Giorgi, op. cit., II, vii, xii, fos cccxii scq.; the analogies are more complex
than I have indicated, but no less arbitrary.

Page 130

GIORGI 117

of analogy was, of course, extremely common in the middle-
ages x, and continued well into the 17th century. Kepler, whose
7����� ���� ' ��� �,F& is an example of the use of theoretically
operative musical and mathematical analogies, pointed out clearly
the fundamental difference between his and Fludd's cosmologies
by showing that his own analogies were exact ones of proportion
between two systems each having a constant unit of measurement,
whereas Fludd's were mostly based merely on an identity of
number between systems having no other mathematical char­
acteristic in common3. Ficino's analogies between cosmic,
musical and human spirits led to magic, Kepler's mathematical
ones to science; Giorgi’s and Fludd’s were not meant to lead
anvwhere at all.

j

This distinction is of course too clear-cut. Ficino’s analogies
and metaphors are often as inoperative as Giorgi’s; it is his spirit
theory that leads him to practical music, rather then the ��� ��
������� built up on the 9 ������D which he and Giorgi have in
common. Conversely, Giorgi's interest in mathematical and in
numcrological analogies did lead him to practical results, which
were, however, architectural, not musical: his design for the
church of S. Francesco della Vigna at Venice, which is based on
one of the series that constitute the �� ��� ���� in the 9 �����
(3,9,27) and on the three perfect consonaces (octave, fifth, fourth)5.

It must also be remembered that for a Renaissance Platonist,
and especially a Cabalistic one, even a bare identity of number

’ See Huizinga, 9��� 3�� ��� � � � tfx ' ����� � ��� , London, 1924, pp. 188-9.
2 Kepler, 7����� ����'��� � !� I 1619, ����� 3��=�& cd. Von Dyck & Caspar,

Bd. VI, Munchcn, 1940.
3 Kepler, ����� 3��=�& VI, 430-2 (� ����� � against Fludd, 1622); VI, 375 I7����

' ���& V, App.: “Illc [sc. Fludd] Hsus veteribus, qui vim Harmoniarum ex numeris
abstractis esse credebant, sat habet, si quas inter partes concordandam esse demon­
strabit, eas numeris quomodocunque comprehendat, nulla cura, cujusmodi unitates
illo numero accumulentur: ego nuspiam doceo quaerere Harmonias, ubi res, inter
quas sunt Harmoniae, non possunt mensurari eadem quantitatis mensura”)· On
the controversy between Kepler and Fludd, cf. C. G. Jung & W. Pauli, 9��� -����H
������ ���� � �/��������������*�"���& London, 1955, pp. 190 seq..

* Cf. supra pp. 14-15.
4 Sec R. Wittkowcr, � ��� ��������� *� �� ����� �� ���� ���� � � � 7���� �� , London,

1949, pp. 90 seq., 136 seq.

Page 257

244 INDEX

Steuco, Agostino, 138
, �� � �� ��12, 38, 189
Suavius, Leo, see Gohory
, �� �� see � ������
, #= �� ��98, GFx, 152
Synesius, GW& 38, 39

Tahureau, Jacques, 98
* �� ����� �� 14, 30, 32, 34, 42-4,

48, 51, 53, 57, 80, 87, 91, 103-4,
107, 132-3, 136-7, 148, 153, 167-
170, 174, 179, 180-1, 185-5,
191, 199, 211-2,214,222-3

Tasso, Faustino, GFx, 129
* �������# ��88-9, 103, 105, 135-6,

149, 161,235
Telesio, Gx;i193, 195, 199, 203,

216, 223
* ������������� �� 151, 175
Thomas Aquinas, 34, WF&� W[& 46,

57-8, 89, 107, 111, 133, 137,
151, 153, 157, 167-8, 176, 181,
FYv&FGWi\& 2/5,218-222,224,226

Thomas, Artus, GWv
9 � ����� ���� �&� x , 113
* � � �# ��33-4, 87, 118, 130, 172
Trithcmius, 80, x]&�x \ &86-90, 97-8,

101, 103, 105, G[]i\& 141-2, 161
Tyard, Pontus de, Fv& 199-122

Urban VIII, 205-212, 220,228,236

Valvas one, Erasmo da, GF;
Varro, 51

F �� ��� � see - ����� �< ��# ��, � � � �
human

Vlinus, see Planets
Vcsalius, GFv
Vicentino, 128
Villani, P k , W\
Vio, Tommaso de, see Caietano
V irgil, G[& 126, 129
Vis � ��� ��� � ��6, 15,21, 33,76-

80, 82, 107, 110, 136-7, 142-4,
149-150, 158-9, 160-1, 179, 183,
200-1

Vis � ��� ��� ��77-8, 80, 82-4,105,
107, 179, 181,201

Vis � �� ��� (see also � �� � ��astrol­
ogical, effects of,), 77-8, 81-2,
149-151,179

V is . ���� ��77-8, 82
V is F ��=���� (see also � ���� N

��� ��� �� � ����# )�� 77-8, 80-4,
105, 107, 109, 121, 140-4, 149-
151, 154-5, 161, 164-6, 175-6,
179-183 234-6

W ier, Johann, 93-4, 96, 105-6,
145, G]Fi\, 180

? �� � �Q�� !'�� %'�� '&�� ''�� '"�� %&%�
%&P�� %!!

? ����� ��82-3, 149, 152, 156,158,
173-4

Words, see V is Verborum

Zarlino, G;& 28-9, 128
Zoroaster, 23, W[& 60, 93,102, 105,

121, 146, 178

Page 258

M A G I C I N H I S T O R Y
r
>■

‘Remains the basis o f contemporary scholarly understanding o f the theory of magic-
in post-medieval Europe . . . w ill appeal not only to scholars and students in a
number of fields (cultural and intellectual history, history o f science, art history,
l i te ra ture , r e l ig io us studies) but also to the m u c h la rger popu la r m a rke t for
occultism.'

B R I A N GO P E N H A Γ Έ Κ , l J C L A

‘As a general introduction to magic in Renaissance intellectual history. Walker is
still the best available.’

RICHARD KIECKHEFER. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, ILLINOIS

THIS book takes as its subject the magical concerns and beliefs, and the demonic theories and practices, o f some o f the greatest thinkers o f the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, from Ficirio, Pico della
Mirandola, to Jean 13odin, Francis Bacon and Campanella.

At a tim e when most scholars tended to view magic as a m arginal subject.
Walker showed that magic was one o f the most typical creations of the late fifteenth
and sixteenth centuries and that ‘Sp iritu s ’ played an im portant role in the
Renaissance. xMagic was, as this book demonstrates, profoundly interconnected
with religion, music and medicine.

First published by the Warburg Institute in 1958, Spiritual and D emonic Magic is
an acknowledged landmark in Renaissance studies. It is remarkable for the clarity
of the writing, and the endurance o f its groundbreaking argument. This classic text
is essential reading for students seeking to understand the assumptions, beliefs and
convictions that informed the thinking of the Renaissance. No one studying the
history o f European thought from the Council o f Florence to the eighteenth
century can aft'ord to be without it.

I S B N 0 - 2 7 1 - 0 2 0 4 5 - 8

8 0 2 7 1 0 2 0 4 5 7

D P WALKER was Reader in Renaissance Studies at the Warburg Institute of the
University of London and subsequently Professor of the History o f the Classical
Tradition there. His other books are The D ecline o f H ell (Warburg, 1964), The
Ancient Theology (Duckworth, 1972) and Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in
Trance and England in the D ue S ix teenth and Early S even teen th C en tu ries (.Volar,
1981).

i i V i

&
.4

9 0 0 0 0 THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE
UNIVERSITY PRESS
University Park. Pennsylvania

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