Download Daniela Bleichmar, Paula de Vos, Kristin Huffine, Kevin Sheehan (Editors) Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, 1500-1800 2008 PDF

TitleDaniela Bleichmar, Paula de Vos, Kristin Huffine, Kevin Sheehan (Editors) Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, 1500-1800 2008
Tags Portugal Early Modern Period Spain Colonialism
File Size6.3 MB
Total Pages454
Table of Contents
Part I - Reassessing the Role of Iberia in Early Modern Science
	1. Science, Medicine, and Technology in Colonial Spanish America:New Interpretations, New Approaches
	2. Portuguese Imperial Science, 1450–1800: A Historiographical Review
Part II - New Worlds, New Sciences
	3. Cosmography at the Casa, Consejo, and Corte During the Century of Discovery
	4. Science During the Portuguese Maritime Discoveries: A Telling Case of Interaction Between Experimenters and Theoreticians
	5. Baroque Natures: Juan E. Nieremberg, American Wonders, and Preterimperial Natural History
Part III - Knowledge Production: Local Contexts, Global Empires
	6. Cosmopolitanism and Scientific Reason in New Spain: Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora and the Dispute over the 1680 Comet
	7. Medical Mestizaje and the Politics of Pregnancy in Colonial Guatemala, 1660–1730
	8. “Read All About It”: Science, Translation, Adaptation, and Confrontation in the Gazeta de Literatura de México, 1788–1795
	9. The Indies of Knowledge, or the Imaginary Geography of the Discoveries of Gold in Brazil
	10. Space Production and Spanish Imperial Geopolitics
Part IV - Commerce, Curiosities, and the Circulation of Knowledge
	11. Knowledge and Empiricism in the Sixteenth-Century Spanish Atlantic World
	12. Voyaging in the Spanish Baroque: Science and Patronage in the Pacific Voyage of Pedro Fernández de Quirós, 1605–1606
	13. Acquisition and Circulation of Medical Knowledge within the Early Modern Portuguese Colonial Empire
	14. The Rare, the Singular, and the Extraordinary: Natural History and the Collection of Curiosities in the Spanish Empire
	15. A Visible and Useful Empire: Visual Culture and Colonial Natural History in the Eighteenth-Century Spanish World
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Science in the Spanish and Portuguese
Empires, 1500–1800

Page 227

200 Knowledge Production

of uniqueness imposed by scientific standardization, and that the affir-
mative support they give to the political status quo is related to an un-
conscious rejection of social groups by the powerful upper classes. Our
approach, however, seeks to explore a more subtle role for the empty
spaces in maps, one that is not so closely related to an exclusionary ethos,
but rather one that illustrates imperial desires to establish separate legis-
lative and managerial orders (biopolitics and geopolitics) that called for
different degrees of stability.6 To do so, we shall explore the different
cartographical practices deployed during the Spanish Enlightenment to
produce inland and coastal spaces in America, and the symbiotic connec-
tion between geographical information and political context.

at tempt ing the big picture

In 1750 no one in the Spanish court would have been able to under-
stand the disparate terms of reference of different geographical sources,
to compare them critically, or to translate all this information into a
single work. That is, there was a lack of know-how of the technologies
used to unify geographical knowledge provided by different traditions
and to replicate it accurately. Yet by 1775, having sent people abroad
for training, the crown had at its disposal one of the most important
achievements of eighteenth-century Spanish cartography: a general map
of southern South America. Yet it was heavily criticized upon its release,
mainly by influential naval hydrographers and military engineers. We
shall explore the way this map was produced in order to understand
how the emerging role of cartographic “silences” revealed changes in the
political use of geographical information that were incompatible with the
all-encompassing representation, the rather academic ideal underlying
this long-awaited map.

In 1775, Minister of State Grimaldi received the results of the work
that had been under way for ten years from the geographer Juan de la
Cruz Cano y Olmedilla (1734–1790): the engraving of a modern, detailed
map of the southern cone. This map gave a uniform representation of an
area characterized by increasing political tension, historically mythical,
rich in natural resources, and unexplored in many of its regions. Cruz
Cano, trained in Paris in the studio of d’Anville, was originally meant to
copy and oversee the engraving of plates of the map drawn by Francisco
Millau y Maravall (1728–1805), a sailor who had taken part in the ex-
peditions emanating from the Treaty of Limits (1750) on the boundaries
between the American territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
It was to be a relatively easy task, but in 1766 Cruz Cano decided not to

Page 228

201Space Production and Spanish Imperial Geopolitics

copy Millau y Maravall’s work but instead to create a new map based on
all those available.7

Taking data coming from an extraordinary variety of sources, Cruz
Cano compiled a rough draft of such great dimensions that could only be
managed when the map was laid flat on the ground, and on which he veri-
fied longitudes “with respect to all the nations which have established their
meridians.”8 This work would bear fruitful results. In 1769, for example,
the Spanish edition of Byron’s Journal of His Circumnavigation (London,
1764–66) appeared as Viage del comandante Byron alrededor del mundo
(A Voyage Around the World Undertaken and Performed by the Hon.
Commodore Byron), translated and annotated by Casimiro Gómez Ortega
(1740–1818) and provided with a map by Cruz Cano of the Magellan
Strait, which consisted of a dialogue over two centuries between explor-
ers, administrators, and sailors, and containing sources ranging from the
accounts of Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1555–1620) to the latest map of
Milhau (1768). Such a critical dialogue was possible because Cruz Cano
worked with four systems of reference for longitude, which included—
along with the Pico de Tenerife, still the most used, and the older one of
Isla de Hierro—those of Paris and London, which were by then becom-
ing dominant. A simple glance at the map shows the importance of the
toponymic differences and the war of names maintained with the English.
The result is a toponymic and topographic encyclopedia, a sort of mu-
seum, which allowed the hoarding of geographical space and created a
guide to the management of immense flows of colonial information.

If we compare this academic map of the Strait of Magellan of 1769
with the same area in Cruz Cano’s map of South America of 1775, we im-
mediately notice that the information that is eliminated is as important as
that which it contains. In the later map, the longitudes refer to the “east
of Teide,” although the other references for establishing longitudes remain
(these are the meridians of Paris, London, Madrid, and Hierro) and, of
course, the toponymy is unified to Spanish, or as the author explains, the
old names are recovered. Also, coastal measurements and routes (naval
information) disappear, announcing what was already known but was
not yet visible: that the coasts were going to be managed independently
from the continental masses. As well as recovering the original names
(which made it easier to compare old documents), the internal political
borders are introduced—essential information for knowing “where Royal
Taxes are collected, where there are Viceroyalties, where there is govern-
ment, and where there is a Corregidor (local magistrate)”9—as well as the
highways and postal stations. Three objects (jurisdictions, communica-
tions, and staging posts) “are not to be found in any geographer, and have
only now been possible to obtain by dint of much time and good original

Page 453


39, 52; exchange of information and,
40; colonial medicine and, 44, 248–49;
scientific expeditions and, 46; dynastic
union between Spain and, 73; early
contribution to the Scientific Revolution
and, 78; royal library of, 185–86

Portugaliae monumenta cartographica, 39
Postmodernism, 29; critique of, 30; Latin

American history of science and, 31;
cartography and, 32–33

Pregnancy, 132; history of reproduction
and, 132–33; mestizaje and, 133;
men and, 134, 137; supernatural and,
135–37, 139–40; Catholic Church and,
142; birth deformities and, 144

Ptolemy, Claudio, 1, 58; navigation
manuals employ principals of, 63

Questionnaires, geographical, 70
Quirós, Pedro Fernández de, 4, 233–46

passim; expedition to the South Sea
and, 233, 315; memorial reports by,
234; possession ceremony on Espíritu
Santo and, 235; naming of La Austrialia
by, 235; utopian thought and, 235–36;
Eighth Memorial, 244; influence on
Francis Bacon, 245

Ray, John, 16
Reede, Hendrik van, Hortus Malabaricus,

Reformation, 2
Reis, António Estácio dos, 80
Relaciones, geographical, 13
Republic of Letters, 147; Spanish-language

periodicals and, 173; Enlightened
Catholicism and, 317

Ribeiro, Diego, metal bilge pump and,

Rizo, Salvador, 309
Rogemunt, Francisco, 252
Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris, 152,

157, 189
Royal Mathematics Academy in Madrid,

Juan de Herrera and, 74
Royal Society, 20

Ruiz, Hipólito, 293; publications of,
299–300; botanical illustrations of, 301

Rutters, Pedro Nunes and, 84
Sahagún, Bernardino de, 229–30; Historia

general de las cosas de la Nueva España,

Said, Edward, 29
Salinas Alonso, María Luisa Martínez de,

San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts,

San Isidro, Colegio Imperial de, 75
Sanches, Francisco, 79
Sandoval y Rojas, Francisco Gómez de,

Duke of Lerma, 237
Santa Cruz, Alonso de, 68, 73; methods

of information gathering and, 229.
Works: El astronómico real, 68; General
geografía e historia, 68; Islario general
de todas las islas del mundo, 68; Libro
de longitudes, 68

Santarém, Viscount of, Essai sur l’histoire
de la cosmographie et de la cartographie
pendant le Moyen Age et sur les progrés
de la géographie après les grandes
découvertes, 38

Santo António, Caetano de, 261;
Pharmacopea lusitana reformada, 262

São Tomé, 267
Schiebinger, Londa, 269–70
Scholasticism, 99
Science, 327n3; definitions of, 11;

peripheries and, 24–25; creoles and, 25;
Incas and, 27; transition from Middle
Ages to modernity and, 78; Aristotle
and, 80, 91; role of experience in, 80;
“pure” and “applied,” 292

Scientific revolution, 1; seventeenth century
and, 115

Scientists, early modern, cosmopolitanism
and, 118

Selles, Manuel, 17
Sessé, Martín de, 293
Seville, 12; expedition of Francisco de

Hernández and, 220

Page 454

Index 427

Sigüenza y Góngora, Carlos de, 115–31
passim; Eusebio Kino and, 117–22, 124;
Jesuits and, 119, 128, 131; scientific
community and, 131. Works: Libra
astronómica, 117; Manifiesto filosófico
contra los cometas despojados del
imperio que tenían sobre los tímidos,
117; Belerofonte matemático contra la
quimera astrológica, 119

Sloane, Sir Hans, 275
Society of Jesus: Portuguese imperial

expansion and, 40–41, 337nn11–13;
education and, 41; role in Portuguese
history of science, 41–43; mathematics
and, 42; Brazil and, 43; expulsion
from Portugal, 47; diffusion of medical
knowledge and, 50; indigenous
knowledge and, 51; Juan Eusebio
Nieremberg and, 95–96; Carlos de
Sigüenza y Góngora and, 119, 128,
131; intellectual backing to Pacific
exploration and, 241–42; and hospitals
in Portuguese Asia, 256; and pharmacy,
260–61; Jesuit apothecaries, 263;
expulsion from Brazil, 266

Solomon Islands, 239–40
Soria, Diego de, 240
Sousa Dias, José Pedro, 269
Sousa, Martim Afonso de, 88
Spanish crown, see individual monarchs,

e.g., Philip II
Staden, Hans, 196
Stahl, George Ernest, 186; Rodrigues

Abreu and, 187
Strait of Magellan, 17, 239–40
Subaltern studies, 29

Talledo y Rivera, Vicente, 205
Thevet, André, 58; indigenous legends of

Brazil and, 195
Thouin, André, 275
Timor, 250
Tlateloco, Franciscan college of, 28
Toldedo, Francisco de, viceroy of Peru, 23;

silver extraction and, 226
Toldedo, Juan Bautista de, 73

Tordesillas, Treaty of, 61; Portuguese
expansion in Brazil and, 196

Torres, Luis Vaez de, 236
Twelve Years’ Truce, 238

Ulloa, Antonio de, 20; José Antonio de
Alzate y Ramírez and, 152; requests the
collection of antiquities, 279

Universidad Autónoma de México
(UNAM), 12

Universities, creole identity and, 26; Córdo-
ba, 26; Havana elites and, 26; México,
26; Portuguese colonial policies and, 26

Utility: in natural history collection, 299;
and the production of visual images,

Utopianism, Pedro Fernández de Quirós
and, 235–36

Valdés, Antonio de, 21
Valencia, Pedro de, 14
Vancouver, George, 213
Vandelli, Domingos, 46
Vega, Lope de, 93
Velasco, Juan López de, 70–73, 316;

Geografía y descripción universal de las
Indias, 69; Juan Luis Arias de Loyola
and, 242

Velasco, Luis de, 239
Venegas, Miguel, 207
Vera Cruz, 18
Vespucci, Amerigo, 60
Vicente Maroto, María Isabel, 13
Villacarrillo, Gerónimo de, 237
Villalpando, Juan Bautista, 5; Pedro

Fernández de Quirós and, 240–41;
biblical exegesis of, 241

Villasante, Antonio de, 222
Villaseñor y Sánchez, José Antonio, 205

Zacuto, Abraham, 312
Zamorano, Rodrigo, 65–66; Compendio

de la arte de navegar, 66
Zaragoza, José de, 129
Zea, Francisco, director of the Royal

Botanic Garden, Madrid, 24

Similer Documents