Download File No. 6_API 936 PDF

TitleFile No. 6_API 936
TagsRefractory Brick Thermal Insulation Thermal Conductivity Aluminium Oxide
File Size151.6 KB
Total Pages10
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Page 4

Figure 3: Pyrometric


(Bureau of Energy Efficiency,


Creep at high temperature: Creep is a time dependent property, which

determines the deformation in a given time and at a given temperature by a refractory

material under stress.

Volume stability, expansion, and shrinkage at high temperatures: The contraction or

expansion of the refractories can take place during service life. Such permanent changes

in dimensions may be due to:

 The changes in the allotropic forms, which cause a change in specific gravity

 A chemical reaction, which produces a new material of altered specific gravity

 The formation of liquid phase

 Sintering reactions

Fusion dust and slag or by the action of alkalies on fireclay refractories, to form alkali-

alumina silicates. This is generally observed in blast furnaces.

Reversible thermal expansion: Any material expands when heated, and contracts when

cooled. The reversible thermal expansion is a reflection on the phase transformations that

occur during heating and cooling.

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