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Page 2

The Gartner Glossary of Information Technology Acronyms and Terms

2004 Gartner, Inc. and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 2

Table of Contents

Numbers..................................................................................................... 1

A ............................................................................................................ 9

B .......................................................................................................... 35

C .......................................................................................................... 53

D .......................................................................................................... 99

E ...................................................................................................... �127

F ........................................................................................................ 153

G ........................................................................................................ 167

H ........................................................................................................ 176

I ........................................................................................................ 189

J ........................................................................................................ 215

K ........................................................................................................ 220

L ........................................................................................................ 224

M ........................................................................................................ 234

N ........................................................................................................ 254

O ........................................................................................................ 265

P ........................................................................................................ 275

Q ........................................................................................................ 294

R ........................................................................................................ 296

S ........................................................................................................ 310

T ........................................................................................................ 346

U ........................................................................................................ 361

V ........................................................................................................ 366

W ........................................................................................................ 376

X ........................................................................................................ 390

Y ........................................................................................................ 394

Z ........................................................................................................ 395

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The Gartner Glossary of Information Technology Acronyms and Terms

2004 Gartner, Inc. and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 196

industrial computer
A personal or process control computer that is designed to withstand the rigors of
the factory floor. Some industrial computer s are configured so that maintenance and
cold start-up are relatively simple. These devices are used for applications such as
data collection, monitoring and programming.

Industry Standard Architecture (see ISA)

infomediary
A slang term (short for "inf ormation intermediary") for an entity that consolidates
information from other parties and offers it to customers — typically via the Web,
and often in a customized or targeted form.

information architecture
An architecture that defines the content, attributes, sources and destinations of
information, its flow through the enterprise , and rules for persis tence, security and
ownership.

Information and Content Exchange (see ICE)

information engineering
A methodology for developing an integr ated information system based on the
sharing of common data, with emphasis on decision support needs as well as
transaction-processing requirements. It assumes logical data representations are
relatively stable compared with the freque ntly changing processe s that use the data.
Therefore, the logical data model, which reflects an organization's rules and policies,
should be the basis for system development.

information filtering (see filtering)

information assets
All forms of information possessed by an ente rprise that are relevant to its business
function. Information assets (also kn own as "knowledge assets") include:

• Captured and tacit knowledge of empl oyees, customers or business partners

• Data and information stored in structured databases, as well as in less-structured
formats such as e-mail, workflow and spreadsheets

• Information stored in elec tronic and paper documents

• Information obtained from external source s, such as purchased or public content
from the Internet or other sources

information management
A method of using technology to collect, process and condense information with the
goal of efficient management. Many larg e enterprises have a central information
management function to facilitate this coordination. The technologies required
include a set of modeling tools and a produc tion-worthy repository in which to store
and manage the information.

Information Management System (see IMS)

information resource center (see IRC)

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information retrieval (see IR)

information superhighway
A 1990s concept for a high-speed comp uting and communications network that
would deliver ubiquitous voice, telephon y, data, video and other communications.
The Internet itself was originally cited only as a model for the information
superhighway, though the popu larity of the Web made it the default successor to the
concept. See Web and Supranet.

information systems (see IS)

information technology (see IT)

Information Technology Infrastructure Library (see ITIL)

Information Technology Security Evaluation and Certification (see ITSEC)

infrared
The portion of the electromagnetic spec trum above radio frequencies but below
visible light, with wavelengths betw een 10 nanometers and 780 nanometers.
Because of the low cost of infrared transmission technology, it is now embedded in a
number of devices (for example, in handheld devices, such as cellular phones) to
provide short-range wireless data communications capabilities.

Infrared Data Association (see IrDA)

inheritance
A quality that defines a relationship among classes in object-oriented (OO) paradigm.
In OO systems, classes at the lower levels of the hierarchy inherit attributes and
methods from the parent classes above them. See OO.

Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (see IGES)

Inmarsat (International Maritime Satellite Organization)
A global mobile satellite communications operator with headquarters in London.
Originally formed as an intergovernmental organization, Inmarsat became a limited
company in 1999. Its communications servic es are now used for mobile-phone, fax
and data communications applications, in addi tion to maritime and aeronautical uses.

in-memory database
A database design that obviates the co mplexities of multilevel stores posed by
traditional relational database manageme nt systems (RDBMSs). This design begins
with the assumption that all data is resi dent in memory. In an in-memory database,
pointers point directly to the data and do no t need to be translated to disk addresses
and blocks. This technology bolsters database performance for embedded
applications, and for tactical requiremen ts where performance gains can be traded
off against traditional RDBMS strengths.

input/output (see I/O)

insertion loss
The reduction in the power of a transmitted signal after a device is inserted into a
communications circuit or a call is connected.

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The Gartner Glossary of Information Technology Acronyms and Terms

2004 Gartner, Inc. and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 393

Z

z/Architecture
A re-branding of, and major upgrade to, IBM's Enterprise Systems Architecture
(ESA) mainframe architecture , announced in 2000. Compared to ESA, z/Architecture
provides increased power, 64-bit addressi ng and enhanced resource management.
See ESA and zSeries.

ZAW (Zero Administration Windows)
A Microsoft initiative launched in 1997 to lower the total cost of ownership (TCO)
associated with the Windows platform by reducing costs associated with
administration. Many of components introduced under the ZAW umbrella were
incorporated as regular func tionality within Windows 2000.

Zero Administration Windows (see ZAW)

zero latency
The removal of delays in the movement of information, data or goods.

zero-latency enterprise (see ZLE)

ZigBee
The ZigBee Alliance's name for the pr oposed IEEE 802. 15.4 standard. The
technology defined by the standard is designed for "command and control";
therefore, it will not support audio or video, but it can be used to send text messages
and voice. A ZigBee network will be able to control lights, fire or smoke detectors,
thermostats, or home security systems. It could also be used as a cable replacement
technology. See 802.15.4.

ZigBee Alliance
A vendor initiative started by Philips Semiconductor, Honeywell and Invensys
Metering Systems and now including more th an 20 companies. It is responsible for
developing applications — as well as a certification process, program, logo and
marketing strategy — for technology base d on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, which
the alliance calls "ZigBee." See 802.15.4 and ZigBee.

zip
The principle form of file-by-file data compression in the Windows environment.

ZLE (zero-latency enterprise)
A strategy that aims for instantaneou s awareness and appr opriate responses to
events across an entire virt ual enterprise. As soon as new information is captured by
any application, it is made available to all other interested parties. The ZLE concept
is closely related to that of the real-time enterprise (RTE), a st rategy to progressively
remove delays in the execution of an ente rprise's critical bu siness processes. The
ZLE supports RTE strategies by focusing on the goal of making information available
when and where it is needed — and on the technology infrastructure required to
achieve that goal. See RTE.

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The Gartner Glossary of Information Technology Acronyms and Terms

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z/OS
The 64-bit operating system for IBM's zS eries mainframe servers. Introduced in
2000, z/OS succeeds 31-bit OS/390, whic h had been IBM's premier mainframe
operating system since 1996. See zSeries and OS/390.

zSeries
IBM's 64-bit mainframe product line, wh ich includes its z800, z900 and z990
mainframe servers. The zSeries products are a re-branding of, and major upgrade
to, IBM's S/390-class mainframe computers.

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