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Page 13

26. Why did not the poor peasants join the civil disobedience
movement? Why was the

relationship between the poor peasants and the Congress
remained uncertain during
civil disobedience movement?

i. The poorer peasants were not just interested in the lowering of the
revenue demand. Many of them were small tenants cultivating land
they had rented from landlords.

ii. As the Depression continued and cash incomes decreased, the small
tenants found it difficult to pay their rent. They wanted the unpaid
rent to the landlord to be remitted.

iii. They joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists
and Communists.

iv. Congress did not want to upset the rich peasants and landlords, and
was unwilling to support ‘no rent’ campaigns of the poor peasants in
most places. So the relationship between the poor peasants and the
Congress remained uncertain.

27. Why did the business class support the civil disobedience movement? Why did the
industrial working classes not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large

i. Indian merchants and industrialists wanted protection against
imports of foreign goods and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio
that would discourage imports.

ii. They wanted to end colonial control over Indian economy. They
joined Civil Disobedience Movement and gave financial assistance
and refused to buy or sell imported goods.

iii. Most businessmen came to see swaraj as a time when colonial
restrictions on business

would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without

iv. As the industrialists came closer to the Congress, workers stayed
aloof. The Congress

was reluctant to include workers’ demands as part of its programme of
struggle. It felt
that this would alienate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial

28. How did the Indian merchants and industrialists protect their

i. To organize business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and
Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian
Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.

ii. Led by prominent industrialists like Purshottamdas Thakurdas
and G. D. Birla, the industrialists attacked colonial control over the
Indian economy, and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement
when it was first launched. They gave financial assistance and
refused to buy or sell imported goods.

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29. Why didn’t the business class support the civil disobedience
movement when it was
re- launched? .

i. After the failure of the Round Table Conference, business groups were
no longer uniformly enthusiastic in the civil disobedience movement..

ii They were afraid of the spread of militant activities, and worried
about prolonged disruption of business, as well as of the growing
influence of socialism amongst the younger members of the

30. .Describe the participation of women in the civil disobedience

i An important feature of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the
large-scale participation of women. During Gandhiji’s salt march,
thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him.

ii They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed
foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail.

iii In urban areas, these women were from high-caste families; in rural
areas, they came from rich peasant households. Moved by Gandhiji’s
call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of

31. Why did the participation of women in large numbers in the
movements not bring any
radical change in the position of Indian women?

i. Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after
home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.

ii. And for a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold
any position of authority within the organization. It was keen only on
their symbolic presence.

32. ‘Dalit participation in the civil disobedience movement was
limited’ Give reasons.

i. For long the Congress had ignored the Dalits, for fear of offending the
Sanatanis, the conservative high-caste Hindus.

ii. Many Dalit leaders had different political solution to the problems of
the community. They began organizing themselves, demanding
reserved seats in educational institutions, and separate electorates
that would choose Dalit members for legislative councils. Therefore
their participation in the civil disobedience movement was limited.

What was the political solution to the problems of the Dalit
community according to its
leaders? ( write point ii above)

33. How was Gandhiji and Dalit leaders different in their views of
the solution to the

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iii. Women who worked for wages had some control over their lives, particularly among
the lower social classes. However, many social reformers felt that the family as an
institution had broken down, and needed to be saved or reconstructed by pushing these
women back into the home.

iv. Conservative people protested against their presence in public spaces, women were
forced to withdraw into their homes.

v. The public space became increasingly a male preserve, and the domestic sphere was
seen as the proper place for women.

vi. Gradually women participated in political movements for suffrage that demanded the
right to vote for women, or for married women’s rights to property.

31. Bombay films have contributed in a big way to produce an image of the city as a blend of
dream and reality. Discuss. Or How did Bombay become mayapuri-a city of dreams? Or
Trace the growth of film industry in Bombay.

i. Many Bombay films deal with the arrival in the city of new migrants, and their
encounters with the real pressures of daily life.

ii. Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar shot a scene of a wrestling match in
Bombay’s Hanging Gardens and it became India’s first movie in 1896.

iii. Soon after, Dadasaheb Phalke made Raja Harishchandra (1913). After that, there was
no turning back.

iv. By 1925, Bombay had become India’s film capital, producing films for a national

v. The amount of money invested in about 50 Indian films in 1947 was Rs 756 million.
By 1987, the film industry employed 520,000 people.

32. How did film industry develop a national character in Bombay?
i. By 1987, the film industry employed 520,000 people. Most of the people in the film

industry were themselves migrants who came from cities like Lahore, Calcutta,
Madras and contributed to the national character of the industry.

ii. Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the
development of the Hindi film industry.

iii. Many famous writers, like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated
with Hindi cinema.

33. Why is Bombay a city of dreams for some, while a city of hardship for others?
i. City of Dreams: The film industry contributed in a big way to produce an image of the

city as a blend of dream and reality. By 1925 Bombay had become India’s film capital,
producing film for national audience. By 1987 the film industry employed 52,000 people.
A large number of people from different part of India migrated to Bombay-the city of
dreams- ‘Mayapuri’.

ii. City of hardship: A large number of workers had to work hard to survive in Bombay.
Bombay was a crowded city. While every Londoner enjoyed an average space of 155
yards Bombay had a mere 9.5 yards . When London had an average of 8 persons per

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