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Table of Contents
                            Half-title
Title
Copyright
Dedication
CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
A NOTE ON THE THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE BOOK
1 Some basic ideas in syntax
	UNIT 1 DEFINING SYNTAX
		1.1 Introduction
		1.2 Science
		1.3 Structure
	UNIT 2 SYNTACTIC DATA
		2.1 Corpora
		2.2 JUDGMENT
	UNIT 3 HYPOTHESES
		3.1 Rules
		3.2 Constraints
		3.3 Prescriptive vs. descriptive rules and constraints
		3.4 Levels of adequacy
	GROUP 1 REVIEW
		Philosophical/methodological issues
		Linguistic analysis issues
2 Categories and subcategories
	UNIT 4 PARTS OF SPEECH AND LEXICAL CATEGORIES
		4.1 Parts of speech
		4.2 Distributional definitions
	UNIT 5 FUNCTIONAL CATEGORIES
		5.1 Open vs. closed classes
		5.2 Lexical vs. functional categories
		5.3 Functional categories
	UNIT 6 SUBCATEGORIES 1: PRONOUNS
		6.1 Pronouns vs. other nouns
		6.2 Feature notation
		6.3 Possessive pronouns
		6.4 Reflexive pronouns
	UNIT 7 SUBCATEGORIES 2: OTHER SUBCATEGORIES NOUNS
		7.1 Proper nouns
		7.2 Animate nouns
		7.3 Common nouns: mass vs. count
	UNIT 8 SUBCATEGORIES 3: TRANSITIVITY
		8.1 Arguments vs. adjuncts
		8.2 Argument structure
	UNIT 9 TANGENT: TENSE, ASPECT, VOICE AND MOOD
		9.1 Tense
		9.2 Perfect aspect
		9.3 Progressive aspect
		9.4 Voice
		9.5 Combined tense, aspect and voice
		9.6 Mood
	UNIT 10 SUBCATEGORIES OF AUXILIARIES
		10.1 Main verb vs. auxiliary verb uses of be, have and do
		10.2 Modals vs. auxiliaries
		10.3 Modals and tense
		10.4 Past and present tense marking in English
	GROUP 2 REVIEW
3 Constituents, MERGE and trees
	UNIT 11 CONSTITUENCY
		11.1 Constituents
		11.2 Tests for constituency
	UNIT 12 C- merge: COMPLEMENTS
		12.1 COMPLEMENT- and Full Interpretation
		12.2 Expressing complements
		12.3 The Principle of Headedness
		12.4 Null determiners
	UNIT 13 COMPLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY
		13.1 Passive auxiliaries
		13.2 Progressive auxiliaries
		13.3 Perfective auxiliaries
		13.4 Modals
		13.5 Tense
		13.6 Do, does and did
	UNIT 14 SPECIFIERS: VP AND TP
		14.1 Specifiers
		14.2 Movement
		14.3 Case
		14.4 Movement motivated by case
	UNIT 15 SPECIFIERS: NP AND DP
		15.1 Subjects of DPs
		15.2 Possessive ’s
	UNIT 16 TAGGING
		16.1 Head agreement: animacy in DPs
		16.2 Number–feature tagging
		16.3 Using tags to trigger movement
		16.4 Local (cyclic) movement
	UNIT 17 Merge: ADJUNCTS
		17.1 Informally identifying adjuncts
		17.2 The feature MOD
		17.3 The operation
		17.4 Adjunct PPs
		17.5 Ambiguity and adjuncts
		17.6 Distinguishing complements and adjuncts
	UNIT 18 DRAWING TREES
		18.1 Example 1
		18.2 Example 2
		18.3 Example 3
		18.4 Summary
	GROUP 3 REVIEW
4 Movement and control
	UNIT 19 PASSIVES
		19.1 Review
		19.2 The INTERNAL feature
		19.3 The EXTERNAL feature
		19.4 PRO: the null pronoun
		19.5 By-phrases
	UNIT 20 NON- FINITE CLAUSES 1: CONTROL CONSTRUCTIONS
		20.1 Non-finite clauses
		20.2 The structure of non-finite clauses
		20.3 Is ready
		20.4 The missing subject
		20.5 Object control
	UNIT 21 NON-FINITE CLAUSES 2: RAISING SENTENCES
		21.1 Subject control vs. raising to subject
		21.2 The idiom test
		21.3 The clausal subject test
		21.4 The pleonastic test
		21.5 The structure of raising predicates
		21.6 Raising to object vs. object control
	UNIT 22 HEAD- TO-HEAD MOVEMENT 1: AUXILIARIES
		22.1 Subject/Auxiliary Inversion and complementizers
		22.2 Question complementizers
		22.3 Tensed auxiliaries
	UNIT 23 HEAD- TO- HEAD MOVEMENT 2: MAIN VERBS
		23.1 English main verbs and tense
		23.2 French main verbs and tense
		23.3 Verb raising in other languages
		23.4 Verb subject object (VSO) languages
	UNIT 24 WH- QUESTIONS
		24.1 Finding wh-questions
		24.2 Formalizing the process
		24.3 Embedded wh-movement
		24.4 Constraints on wh-movement
	GROUP 4 REVIEW
5 Conclusions
	UNIT 25 EVALUATING OUR PROGRESS
		25.1 A tree for review
		25.2 Evaluating our grammar
	UNIT 26 THE NEXT STEPS
		26.1 “Modern” syntax
		26.2 The paradigm of generative grammar
		26.3 The Minimalist Program (MP)
		26.4 Lexical–Functional Grammar (LFG)
		26.5 Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG)
		26.6 Other approaches to syntax
		26.7 The last word
	APPENDIX 1: GLOSSARY, SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
	APPENDIX 2: FEATURES AND THEIR VALUES
	APPENDIX 3: RULES, CONSTRAINTS AND PRINCIPLES
		Syntactic rules
		Principles and constraints
	REFERENCES
	INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
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Page 186

GROUP THREE Constituents, merge and trees

172

(d) [the man who talks too quickly]’s hat

(e) [the man who is afraid]’s hat

(f) [the man who left]’s hat

In (3b), ’s is found at the end of the word California, but it isn’t California’s
hat, but the man’s hat, even if he is from California! Sentences (3c– f) show
an even more disturbing pattern, the ’s attaches to a preposition (3c), an
adverb (3d), an adjective (3e) and even a verb (3f). ’s appears to behave
differently than any other suffix in English, which always attaches to a head
noun.

Exercise If the possessor DP is in the specifier of the NP as we’ve hypothesized, this
predicts that we should be able to C- merge this complex NP with a D like a
giving a DP:

(4)

However, this results in an unacceptable form:.

(5) *a [John]’s hat

Q4 & Is the phrase a man’s hat a counter example to this claim? (Hint: what
noun is a modifying? Is it man or hat? So which N does a C- merge with?)

Definition Complementary distribution: Two elements are in complementary
distribution if they cannot appear at the same time. For example, in English,
unaspirated stop consonants like /p/ can appear after /s/ and aspirated
stops like /ph/ can appear anywhere except after /s/. These two sounds are
in complementary distribution. When two elements are in complementary
distribution, it entails that they are members of the basic category.

Discussion The fact that ’s and a cannot co- occur on the same noun (that is, they are
in complementary distribution) suggests that they are both part of the same
class: determiners. If this is the case, then the tree for a DP like John’s hat
might look more like (6) (based loosely on Abney 1987):

Notation: I’ve used
a triangle to simplify
the diagram here. The
triangle implies that the
usual structure under it
is present even though
it isn’t spelled out. You
should avoid using
triangles in your own
trees.

D1P

D1 NP
a

D2P N
specifier of N hat

John’s

Page 187

UNIT 15 Specifiers: NP and DP

173

(6)

(7)



Exercise Q5 & Why does the DP move? Try to explain the movement by proposing a
feature structure for ’s.

Exercise Q6 & Draw the tree for sentence (3b), using the tree in (6) as a model, but
don’t use a triangle!

Exercise Q7 & Look carefully at the tree you have drawn for Q6. This kind of
analysis explains the data in (3), where ’s comes after words like California.
Explain why trees like the one you drew for Q6 allow the ’s to follow words
that are not the actual possessor (such as California in (3b)).

Exercise In unit 14, exercise Q8, you were asked to argue that subjects in Irish stayed
in the specifier of the VP, and did not raise to the specifier of TP. In this
exercise, you are asked to make a similar argument about the possessors in
Hungarian.1

Q8 & Consider the following data. Draw a tree for (8); base it on the tree above
in (6), but put the possessor in the specifier of NP instead of DP, and don’t
indicate movement. Ignore the ending on hat, it is irrelevant to the question.
(8) az én kalapom

the I hat. 1sg

“my hat”

1 Data from Szabolcsi (1994).

D1P

D2P D1́

John
’s
D1 NP

tD2P N
hat

John starts out as the specifier of hat. It does so, so that it can
satisfy the EXTERNAL feature of hat:

hat

category

N

subcat
+count
external DP

[+animate]( )
It then moves to the specifier of D 1P as indicated by the arrow
in (6).

Page 371

357

Index

gend 51
gender 20, 337
Generative Grammar 328–9
genitive case, see possessive case
German 296
gerund 82
grammar 24, 337
grammaticality 15

have 93–7
head 119, 337
head agreement 179–82
Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar, 327,

331
head-to-head movement 279–301, 338
HPSG, see Head-driven Phrase Structure

Grammar
Hungarian 173–4
hypotheses 3, 19–27

idiom test 263–5, 338
imperfect 84, 338
in situ 295fn
infinitive 338
intensifier 47, 195, 338
interjection 46, 338
interlinear gloss 9, 338
internal 73, 119–55, 232–3, 338
intransitive 72, 338
Irish Gaelic, see Modern Irish

Japanese 10–11
judgment tasks 13–17

lexical category 43, 338
Lexical–Functional Grammar, 327, 330–1
LFG, see Lexical–Functional Grammar
local movement, see cyclic movement
long-distance dependencies 306
Lummi (Straits Salish) 38

main verbs 290–8
manner adverb 194
marginality 14
mass nouns 64–7, 338, 349
Minimalist Program, 327, 329–30
mod 195, 338
modal 90, 97–100, 140–2, 339
Modern Irish 9, 12, 166, 280, 297
mood 90, 339
movement 158–67, 182–7, 262–313, 339, 349
movement test 115–16
MP, see Minimalist Program

native-speaker judgments 14, 339
necessity 91
negation 46, 339
neologism 42, 339
nominalization 170–1
nominative case 11, 339
non-finite clauses 242–78, 339
noun 35–6, 339

Noun Phrase (NP) 170–8
null 234–5
null determiners, 126–30, 252
num 51
number 20, 339
number agreement 181

object control 254–5, 272–4
obligation 91
observational adequacy 24, 320, 339
open class 42–3, 339

paradigm 20
participle 82, 339
particles 116, 339
parts of speech 33–41, 339
passive 87, 135–7, 231–41, 340
past 82, 101–5, 340
Perfect aspect 82–5, 88, 138–40, 340
pers 51
person 20, 340
phrase 111
pleonastic 266–8, 340
plural 65
plurals 65–7
Polish 187
Portuguese 296
possessive case 53, 171–5, 340
possessive pronouns 55–6, 174
possibility 91
postposition 45, 340
predicate 70
predicative adjectives 247, 340
prediction 5
preposition 44, 340
prepositional ditransitives 62
Prepositional Phrase (PP) 70, 198–9, 340
prescriptive rules 22–4, 245, 340
present 82, 101–5, 341
preterite 102, 341
Principle of Full Interpretation 119, 341, 349
Principle of Headedness 125, 341, 349
PRO 234–6, 250–2, 341
probability 91
progressive 85–8, 137–8, 341
project 196
pronouns 20, 49–60, 341
prop 61
proper nouns 61–2, 341

quantifier 45
quantifier float 165–6

+R 56
raising 262–78
raising predicates 263, 341
reflexive pronouns 56, 341
remerge 164, see also movement
reordering test for adjuncts 201, 341
replacement test 115, 342
representation 21, 342
rules 19–20, 342

Page 372

358

Index

’s 171–5
S-merge 156–78, 342, 349
science (definition) 3
scientific method 3–6
sem 82
semantic definitions of parts of speech

33
semantic judgments 15, 342
semantic modification test 112–13
silent words 101, 126–30, 234, 252
Spanish 63
specifiers 156–78
split infinitive 245–6
stand-alone test 114, 342
structure 6
subcat 51
subcategories 49–80
subject control 262–7
Subject/Auxiliary Inversion 279–89, 342
subject/verb inversion test 296, 342
subordinating conjunction, see

complementizer
suppletion 52, 342
syntactic categories, see parts of speech
syntactic judgments 15, 343
syntax (definition) 3, 343

T 98, 142–3
tagging, see tags
tags 179–91, 232–4, 343
temporal adverb 194
tense 81–2, 88, 343
Tense Phrase (TP) 156–7
ternary branching 255
transitive 72, 343
transitivity 71–80
trees 210–25
triangle notation, 343

uncertainty 308, 343

Vata 295
verb 36, 343
Verb Phrase (VP) 114, 156–67
voice 87–8, 343
VSO 297–8

Welsh 297–8
+wh 303
Wh-Island Constraint 308, 343, 350
wh-questions 302–13, 343

yes/no question 4, 279–89, 343

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