Download Philippine Architecture PDF

TitlePhilippine Architecture
TagsPhilippines Corazon Aquino Fortification Federal Government Of The United States United States House Of Representatives
File Size4.2 MB
Total Pages30
Table of Contents
                            General Emilio Aguinaldo (January 23, 1899 – April 1, 1901)
Manuel L. Quezon (November 15, 1935 – August 1, 1944)
Sergio Osmeña (August 1, 1944 – May 28, 1946)
SECOND REPUBLIC (Japanese Occupation)
Jose P. Laurel (October 14, 1943 – August 17, 1945)
Manuel Roxas (May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948)
Elpidio Quirino (April 17, 1948 – December 30, 1953)
Ramon Magsaysay (December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957)
Carlos P. Garcia (March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1961)
Diosdado Macapagal (December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965)
Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1972)
Ferdinand Marcos (1972-1986)
Corazon Aquino (February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992)
Fidel V. Ramos (June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1998)
Joseph Estrada (June 30, 1998 – January 20, 2001)
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (January 20, 2001 – June 30, 2010)
Benigno Aquino III (June 30, 2010 – present)
Early History or Pre-Colonial Period
The Philippine archipelago was settled at least 30,000 years ago, when migrations from the Indonesian archipelago and elsewhere are believed to have occurred. Additional migrations took place over the next millennia. Over time, social and political organization developed and evolved in the widely scattered islands. The basic unit of settlement were the barangays (a Malay word for boat that came to be used to denote a communal settlement). Kinship groups were led by a datu (chief), and within the barangay there were broad social divisions consisting of nobles, freemen, and dependent and landless agricultural workers and slaves.
Over the centuries, Indo-Malay migrants were joined by Chinese traders. A major development in the early period was the introduction of Islam to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from the Indonesian islands. By A.D. 1500, Islam had been established in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from there to Mindanao; it reached the Manila area by 1565. In the midst of the introduction of Islam came the introduction of Christianity, with the arrival of the Spanish.
Pre-Spanish Times
The Philippine Republic
Philippine History During the Martial Law Regime
1. Pre-historic Period
	Caves (Natural Shelters)
	Banaue Rice Terraces
2.Classical Period
	Skills in Fortification[edit]
		The Muslim Kota[edit]
		Batanes Castles[edit]
		Igorot Forts[edit]
	Torogan (The wooden palace)[edit]
3. Pre-Spanish Era
4. Pre-Modern Era
5. Spanish Era (16th - 19th century) 1521 - 1898
5. American Regime (Beginning of 20th Century) 1905 – 1940’s
Document Text Contents
Page 2



The Philippines is located in the southern part of Asia north of the equator. In terms of
latitude and longitude, the Philippines lies between 4 23’ and 20 00’ north and longitude 116 00’
and 126 30’ east.

Immediately to the north of the Philippines is the island republic of Taiwan, formerly known as
Formosa. Immediately to the west is communist Vietnam which, together with Laos and
Cambodia, make up or comprise the Indochinese peninsula. Further west beyond Vietnam is
Thailand. Immediately to the south of the Philippines is the republic of Indonesia. To the
southwest are Malaysia and Republic of Singapore. These countries ----- Thailand, Malaysia,
Singapore, Vietnam and Indonesia together with Brunei and the Philippines---- comprise the

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● 1892 - Jose Rizal founded the civic organization La Liga Filipina.

● 1896 - Katipuneros tear their cedulas & shout in contempt of the Spaniards in what is called the Cry
of Pugadlawin.

● 1897 - General Emilio Aguinaldo establishes the a new republic at Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan.

● 1886 - José Rizal publishes anti-Spanish novel, Noli Me Tangere (The Lost Eden); and seers up
independence sentiment.

● 1896 - Spanish execute Rizal for instigating insurrection; public outrage spawns rebellion.

● 1898 - American warship Maine was blown up in Havana harbour, triggers the the Spanish-American
war, the battle of Manila Bay ensues.

● 1898 - Emilio Aguinaldo assembled the Malolos Congress in Bulacan, then declares independence in
Kawit, Cavite

● 1899 - Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War, cedes Philippines to U.S. after payment to Spain
by U.S. of $ 20 million. Emilio Aguinaldo declares independence then leads a guerrilla war against U.S.

● 1901 - U.S. captures Aguinaldo; William Howard Taft arrives as first U.S. governor of Philippines.

● 1902 - Insurrection ends; Taft improves economic conditions, settles disputes over church ownership
of land, establishes "Pensionado" program, allowing Filipinos to study in U.S., which helped modernize
and westernize the country.

● 1916 - U.S. congress passes the Jones Law establishing elected Filipino legislature with house and

● 1934 - U.S. congress approves the Tydings-McDuffie Law promising Philippine independence by
1946; transition to independence begins.

● 1935 - Filipino people approve constitution creating the Philippine Commonwealth with Manuel
Quezon y Molina as president.

● 1941 - Japanese invades the Philippines, and defeats Gen. Douglas MacArthur at Bataan and
Corregidor; Quezon establishes government in exile in the U.S.

● 1944 - Quezon dies in exile; Vice President Sergio Osmeña assumes the presidency; MacArthur
returns to the Philippines and lands in Leyte with little resistance.

● 1945 - Gen. MacArthur liberates Manila and President Osmeña establishes government.

● 1946 - The U.S. gave the Philippines independence and Manuel Roxas y Acuña is elected as the first
president of the new republic.

● 1965 - Ferdinand E. Marcos is elected by a big majority as president.

● 1972 - Martial Law was declared by President Marcos.

● 1981 - Marcos lifts Martial Law.

● 1983 - Opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino returns from exile and is assassinated on arrival at
Manila International Airport; Aquino's widow Corazon leads the "People Power" protest movement.

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● 1986 - Marcos was declared winner in a presidential election beating Corazon Aquino amid charges
of fraud; demonstrations erupt; Marcos flees to Hawaii; Aquino is declared president and forms a new

● 1992 - Endorsed by Aquino, her Secretary of Defense Gen. Fidel Ramos wins presidential election.
U.S. Philippine congress rejects a new treaty with the U.S. and Subic Bay naval base and Clark Air Field
returns to Philippine government, ending American military presence in the Philippines.

● 1996 - The government of Ramos agrees to greater autonomy for southern island of Mindanao. Moro
National Liberation Front (MNLF) ends the guerrilla war with the government.

● 1997 - Asian financial crisis grips Asia and the Philippines escapes the crisis despite series of
currency devaluations.

● 1998 - Former movie actor Joseph Estrada is elected president.

● 2000 - On charges of corruption, the lower house impeach Estrada.

● 2001 - Estrada was forced to step down due to public outrage over corruption allegations. Vice
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo assumes the presidency.

● 2004 - Presidential election takes place. Arroyo's closest rival (a dear friend of Ex-President Estrada)
is film actor Fernando Poe, Jr. Arroyo narrowly defeats Poe, taking 39.5% of the vote to Poe's 36.6%.

● 2005 - A taped conversation between President Arroyo & an election official surfaced during the
2004 elections implying she influenced the official election results. Calls for her resignation and
demonstrations followed soon after. In September 2005, Congress voted down the filing of an
impeachment against Arroyo.

● 2007 - Former President Joseph Estrada is convicted of plunder, the first ever in the history of the

● 2010 - First automated national elections in the Philippines.

● 2010 - Benigno "Noynoy" Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III wins the Presidential elections and sworn in at
Manila's Rizal Park on June 30, 2010.


The average Filipino is deeply religious and dedicated to his church and faith. The Cathedral,
mosque or chapel is the landmark of most communities; and although the constitution provides for
separation of church and state, the advise and guidance of religious leaders remains influential in
every area of social life, including politics. The Philippine Republic is the only catholic country east of
the Mediterranean Sea, a legacy of Spanish Missionaries who begun teaching in the early 17th
century, Catholicism has been fostered and expanded in the present century by U.S\German, and
Belgian missionaries. The Catholic educational association includes two Universities (Santo Tomas in
Manila and San Carlos in Cebu City), one hundred seminaries and colleges and more than 400 high
and 200 elementary schools. The church runs 13 hospitals, 9 assylums and shelters, 3 lepers colonies

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This period of modern architecture in the Philippines began with Andres Luna de San Pedro, Juan Nakpil, Fernando Ocampo and Pablo
Antonio, who like their Forbears of the Neo-classic period were products of Foreign education. Their works marked the liberation from
Neo-classic formulas and the introduction of a new languages of design: clean lines, bold masses, the imaginative use of materials,
the G. I. sheets was rc:mpantly use as roofing. Use of the cantilever, and a more thoughtful adaptation to local ccndi· tions.
During this period two schools of architecture were founded: The MAPUA Institute of Technology in 1925, and the school of
Architecture of the University of Santo Tomas in 1930. From these and from other schools that opened later came a new generation of
ar- chitects who began a new chapter in the evolution of Filipino architecture.
It is interesting to note that in 1933, the Philippine Architects Society (PAS! was or- ganized. Pertinent historical highlights of the
society included the drafting of the Con- stitution and by-laws and the adoption of a Code of Ethics and Standard Professional Fees.
The First ten {10) Filipino Architects are: 1) Tomas Mapua; 2) Carlos Baretto; 3) Antonio Toledo; 41 Cheri; 5) Arthur
Chumbert; 6) Juan Villegas; 7) Sidney Rowlands; 8) Juan Altiveros; 9) Tomas Arguelles; and 10) Isidro del Valle.

THE POST-WAR PERIOD (1945-1950) LIBERATION The devastation brought about by the last World War II. coupled by economic exigen·
cies gave way to the extension of a slowly emerging architectural concept to detach from the bondage of traditional forms.
A revolt against the obsolete concepts in architecture started to shape in the reconstruc- tion and rehabilitation that followed. A lack
ot thorough understanding on the part of the public, including most architects. regarding the correct interpretation of the new
developing concept of contemporary architecture, resulted in the erection of architec- tural blunders in the early post war years. The
urgent needs for building saw a rush of construction that revealed the hastiness and dire necessity made more grave by speed and
constructions grew haphazardly without direction or control.
Inspiration from fast progressively growing countries. like Brazil, Venezuela, America, and Japan, saturated our cities with horrible,
imitations of exterior treatments, at the sacrifice of logic. Borrowed external and internal treatment were abused in monotonous
decorative repetitions, disregarding their functional purposes. This confusing state of Filipino architecture to rely mostly on artificial
decorations and violations of purpose confused the understanding of the public.

• PRESENT PHASE- 1960's to 1985
The Nationalistic fervor inherent in the Filipinos triggered the impetus for the search for identity. Gradually comprehending the
philosophy of modem architecture, the new buildings that are now rising in our urban areas tend to forestall a Filipino architecture
maturity. Young architects, influenced by a fresh educational background from de- veloping schools of thought are now gradually
giving a logical approach to Philippine ar- chitecture, particularly in commercial and other private buildings.

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The Central Bank Main Office Building, the first structure to be built in the Central Bank Building Complex is composed of 5 floors of
office areas and related amenities, a partial basement, and the executive offices of the Bank. The building was designed to underline
the concept of function for the efficiency of the occupants.
Seventeen storeys high, to accommodate all other offices and departments not previously alloted in the Main Building, the Multi-
Storey Building forms a major part of the Central Bank Building Complex, as it houses the Operations area of the Bank.
An 8-storey building planned mainly to shelter computer system equipments of the Central Bank Electronic Data Processing Center
and other relative offices. The basement parking are below, the podium level can accommodate approximately 500 cars.

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