Download Raphael Ikan, Raphael Ikan Selected Topics in the Chemistry of Natural Products.pdf PDF

TitleRaphael Ikan, Raphael Ikan Selected Topics in the Chemistry of Natural Products.pdf
TagsChromatography Metabolism Natural Products Mass Spectrometry Metabolic Pathway
File Size13.1 MB
Total Pages625
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Contributors
Chapter 1. The Origin and the Nature of Natural Products Raphael Ikan
	1.1 INTRODUCTION
	1.2 HUMAN MEDICINAL AGENTS FROM PLANTS
	1.3 RECENT PROGRESS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS3,4,5
	1.4 THE CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL PRODUCTS
	1.5 IDENTIFICATION OF NATURAL PRODUCTS BY CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 2. Plant-Derived Natural Products in Drug Discovery and Development: An Overview Mark Bahar, Ye Deng, Joshua N. Fletcher and A. Douglas Kinghorn
	2.1 INTRODUCTION
	2.2 PLANT NATURAL COMPOUNDS AND DRUG DISCOVERY
	2.3 EXAMPLES OF NATURALLY OCCURRING DRUGS OBTAINED FROM PLANTS
	2.4 EXAMPLES OF SEMISYNTHETIC DRUGS BASED ON LEAD COMPOUNDS FROM PLANTS
	2.5 PLANT-DERIVED COMPOUNDS USED AS “BIOCHEMICAL TOOLS”/“PHARMACOLOGICAL PROBES”
	2.6 STRATEGIES FOR MEDICINAL PLANT CONSERVATION
	2.7 BIOTECHNOLOGY / DIRECTED BIOSYNTHESIS ASPECTS
	2.8 FUTURE PROSPECTS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 3. Plant and Brain Cannabinoids: The Chemistry of Major New Players in Physiology Lumir Hanuš and Raphael Mechoulam
	3.1 CANNABIS PLANT HISTORY
	3.2 CANNABIS SATIVA (HEMP) AND ITS TYPICAL CANNABINOID COMPONENTS
		3.2.1 Biogenesis
		3.2.2 Cannabinoid Substances from Cannabis sativa L
		3.2.3 Non Cannabinoid Constituents of Cannabis sativa L
	3.3 CANNABINOID RECEPTORS IN LIVING ORGANISMS
		3.3.1 Central (CB1) and Peripheral (CB2) Cannabinoid Receptors
		3.3.2 GPR55 Receptor
	3.4 ENDOCANNABINOIDS
	3.5 THE ENDOCANNABINOID CONGENERS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 4. Natural Products as Biomarker Tracers in Environmental and Geological Processes Bernd R.T. Simoneit
	4.1 INTRODUCTION
		4.1.1 Definitions
		4.1.2 Glossary
		4.1.3 Historical and New Horizons
		4.1.4 Natural Products and Derivatives
			4.1.4.1 Lipids
			4.1.4.2 Terpenoids
	4.2 METHODS
		4.2.1 Extraction and Molecular Analyses
			4.2.1.1 Extraction and Fractionation
			4.2.1.2 Instrumental Analyses
	4.3 NATURAL PRODUCTS AS TRACERS
		4.3.1 Environmental Applications
			4.3.1.1 Tocopherols
			4.3.1.2 Biomass Burning
			4.3.1.3 Saccharides
			4.3.1.4 Photochemistry
			4.3.1.5 Geological applications
			4.3.1.6 Natural Products in Fossils and Amber
			4.3.1.7 Hydrothermal Petroleum/Bitumen
	4.4 PROGNOSIS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 5. Toxins of Marine Invertebrates and Microorganisms Yoel Kashman and Yehuda Benayahu
	5.1 INTRODUCTION
		5.1.1 Dinoflagellates
		5.1.2 Porifera
		5.1.3 Cnidaria
		5.1.4 Mollusca
		5.1.5 Echinodermata
	5.2 POLYETHER TOXINS
		5.2.1 Tetrodotoxin (TTX)
		5.2.2 Saxitoxin (STX)
		5.2.3 Ciguatoxin (CTX)
		5.2.4 Maitotoxin
		5.2.5 Okadaic acid (OA)
		5.2.6 Metabolites of Cyanobacteria
		5.2.7 Palytoxin (PTX)
		5.2.8 Conotoxins
		5.2.9 Ziconotide
		5.2.10 Sponge, Soft Coral and Tunicate Toxins
	REFERENCES
Chapter 6. Enantiomeric Distribution of Odorous Oxygenated Monoterpenes in Aromatic Plants Uzi Ravid
	6.1 INTRODUCTION
	6.2 OLFACTORIAL PROPERTIES OF CHIRAL OXYGENATED MONOTERPENES
	6.3 CHIRAL- GC DETERMINATION OF ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF OXYGENATED MONOTERPENES
	6.4 SELECTED CHIRAL OXYGENATED MONOTERPENES
		6.4.1 Piperitone
		6.4.2 Pulegone
		6.4.3 Menthone and Isomenthone
		6.4.4 Verbenone
		6.4.5 Carvone
		6.4.6 Fenchone
		6.4.7 Camphor
		6.4.8 cis- and trans-Piperitone Oxide
		6.4.9 trans- and cis-Sabinene Hydrates and their Acetates
		6.4.10 Linalool
		6.4.11 Linalyl Acetate
		6.4.12 Citronellol
		6.4.13 Borneol
		6.4.14 α-Terpineol
		6.4.15 Terpinen-4-ol
	REFERENCES
Chapter 7. Recent Trends of Some Natural Sweet Substances from Plants Bernard Crammer
	7.1 INTRODUCTION
	7.2 DITERPENE GLYCOSIDES
	7.2.1 Ent-kaurene Diterpene Glycosides from the Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana
		7.2.2 Stevia rebaudiana bertoni
	7.3 SWEET PROTEINS
		7.3.1 Brazzein
		7.3.2 Thaumatin
		7.3.3 Safety evaluation of thaumatin (Talin protein)
		7.3.4 Monellin
		7.3.5 Curculin
		7.3.6 Mabinlin
		7.3.7 Pentadin
		7.3.8 Miraculin
	7.4 CONCLUSIONS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 8. Natural Products for Pest Management Stephen O. Duke, Agnes M. Rimando, Kevin K. Schrader, Charles Cantrell, Kumudini M. Meepagala, David E.Wedge, Nurhayat Tabanca, and Franck E. Dayan
	8.1 INTRODUCTION
	8.2 ALGICIDES
	8.3 INSECTS
		8.3.1 Insect Repellents
		8.3.2 Insecticidal Natural Products
		8.3.3 Molluscicides
	8.4 PLANT PATHOGENS
		8.4.1 Compounds that Induce Resistance to Pathogens in Plants
		8.4.2 Compounds that Act Directly on Pathogens
	8.5 VERTEBRATE PESTS
	8.6 WEEDS
		8.6.1 The Use of Natural Products inWeed Management
		8.6.2 Natural Product Herbicides
		8.6.3 Natural Products as Lead Compounds for Conventional Herbicides
		8.6.4 Summary
	8.7 CONCLUSIONS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 9. Natural Products in Mycelial Microorganisms: Impact of Morphology Sergei Braun
	9.1 NATURAL PRODUCTS FROM MICROORGANISMS: CURRENT STATUS
	9.2 COMPLEXITYOFMYCELIALMICROORGANISMS
	9.3 MORPHOLOGY OF FILAMENTOUS MICROORGANISMS IN INDUSTRIAL HABITAT
	9.4 THE UNITY OF LIVING MATTER
	9.5 MICROBIAL ADHESION: FLOCCULATION AND BIOFILM FORMATION
	9.6 AERIAL MYCELIUM
	9.7 QUORUM SENSING
	9.8 APOPTOSIS
	9.9 STRINGENT RESPONSE
	9.10 CELL DIVISION GENES
	9.11 GENES OF FUNGAL MORPHOLOGY
	9.12 RECIPES FOR THE FUTURE
	ACKNOWLEDGMENT
	REFERENCES
Chapter 10. Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Insect Pheromones Mangesh J. Goundalkar and Francis X.Webster
	10.1 INTRODUCTION
	10.2 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NEW PHEROMONES
		10.2.1 Coleoptera
		10.2.2 Dictyoptera
		10.2.3 Diptera
		10.2.4 Hemiptera
		10.2.5 Heteroptera
		10.2.6 Homoptera
		10.2.7 Hymenoptera
		10.2.8 Isoptera
		10.2.9 Lepidoptera
		10.2.10 Neuroptera
		10.2.11 Thysanoptera
		10.2.12 Acarina
		10.2.13 Aranea
		10.2.14 Some Other Interesting Examples
	10.3 SYNTHESIS OF PHEROMONES
	REFERENCES
Chapter 11. Nature Derived Antibiotics Srinivas Kodali and JunWang
	11.1 INTRODUCTION
	11.2 CELLWALL ANTIBIOTICS
		11.2.1 Beta-Lactams
		11.2.2 Penicillins
		11.2.3 Cephalosporins
		11.2.4 Carbapenems
		11.2.5 Bacitracin
		11.2.6 Cycloserine
		11.2.7 Glycopeptides
		11.2.8 Phosphonate
	11.3 CELL MEMBRANE INHIBITORS
		11.3.1 Polymyxins
		11.3.2 Daptomycin
	11.4 PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS INHIBITORS
		11.4.1 Aminoglycosides
		11.4.2 Tetracyclines
		11.4.3 Macrolides, Lincosamides and Streptogramins
		11.4.4 Mupirocin
	11.5 NUCLEIC ACID (DNA AND RNA) INHIBITORS
		11.5.1 Novobiocin
		11.5.2 Rifampin
	11.6 FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHESIS INHIBITION
		11.6.1 Screening for FabH/F Inhibitors
	11.7 LESSONS LEARNED FROM ANTIBIOTIC DISCOVERY
	11.8 PROSPECTS OF IDENTIFYING NOVEL ANTIBIOTICS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 12. Natural Products and Related Compounds of Realized and Potential Use in Treating Neurodegenerative Disease Peter J. Houghton and Melanie-Jayne Howes
	12.1 INTRODUCTION
	12.2 PARKINSON’S DISEASE
		12.2.1 Introduction
		12.2.2 PD: The Use of Dopaminergic Compounds
			12.2.2.1 General consideration of DA receptor agonists
			12.2.2.2 L-DOPA (refer to Structures 1)
			12.2.2.3 Other phenylpropylamines (refer to Structures 1)
			12.2.2.4 Ergot alkaloids and derivatives (refer to Structures 2)
			12.2.2.5 Other dopaminergic compounds (refer to Structures 3)
			12.2.2.6 PD: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (refer to Structures 4 and 5)
	12.3 ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
		12.3.1 Introduction
		12.3.2 AD: The Use of Cholinergic Compounds
			12.3.2.1 Introduction (refer to Structures 6)
			12.3.2.2 Arecoline and pilocarpine (refer to Structures 6)
			12.3.2.3 Pilocarpine
		12.3.3 AD: The Use of Cholinesterase Inhibitors
			12.3.3.1 Introduction
			12.3.3.2 Physostigmine and related compounds (refer to Structures 7)
			12.3.3.3 Galantamine and other amaryllidaceae alkaloids (refer to Structures 8)
			12.3.3.4 Huperzine A and analogues (refer to Structures 8 and 9)
			12.3.3.5 Other alkaloids (refer to Structures 9–13)
			12.3.3.6 Terpenoids (refer to Structures 13–15)
			12.3.3.7 Phenolic compounds and others derived from the Shikimic pathway (refer to Structures 15–17)
			12.3.3.8 AD: Use of nicotinergic compounds (refer to Structures 18)
			12.3.3.9 AD: Approaches related to improved blood .ow through the brain (refer to Structures 18)
	12.4 MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS) (refer to Structures 19)
	12.5 CONCLUSIONS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 13. Phytotoxic Compounds with Calmodulin Inhibitor Properties from Selected Mexican Fungi and Plants Rachel Mata, Sergio-Martínez Luis and Araceli Pérez-Vasques
	13.1 INTRODUCTION
	13.2 PHYTOTOXIC AGENTS FROM SELECTED PLANT SPECIES
		13.2.1 Flourensia cernua
		13.2.2 Prionosciadium watsoni
		13.2.3 Maxillaria densa and Epidendrum rigidum
		13.2.4 Hofmeisteria schaffneri
	13.3 PHYTOTOXIC AGENTS FROM SELECTED FUNGI
		13.3.1 Phoma herbarum
		13.3.2 Guanomyces polytrhix
		13.3.3 Malbranchea aurantiaca
	13.4 CONCLUSIONS
	13.5 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 14. Potential Anticancer Natural Products from Plant-Associated Fungi Marilyn T. Marron and A. A. Leslie Gunatilaka
	14.1 INTRODUCTION
	14.2 NATURAL PRODUCT-BASED ANTICANCER DRUGS
	14.3 PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGI AS A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS
	14.4 ENDOPHYTES AS SOURCES OF CLINICALLY USED ANTICANCER DRUGS AND THEIR PRECURSORS
		14.4.1 Paclitaxel (Taxol®)
		14.4.2 Podophyllotoxin
		14.4.3 Camptothecin
		14.4.4 Radicicol
	14.5 CYTOTOXIC AGENTS FROM PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGI
		14.5.1 Globosumones from Chaetomium globosum
		14.5.2 (+)-Epiepoxydon from Apiospora montagnei
		14.5.3 Myrothecines from Myrothecium roridum
		14.5.4 Curvularins from a Penicillum sp. and Nectria galligens
		14.5.5 Aspochalasins from Aspergillus flavipes
		14.5.6 11-Hydroxycurvularin and Penicillic Acid from Aspergillus sp.
		14.5.7 Terricyclic Acid A (TCA) from Aspergillus terreus
		14.5.8 Brefeldin A from Aspergillus clavatus and Paecilomyces sp
		14.5.9 Rubrofusarin B from Aspergillus niger
		14.5.10 Sequoaitones from Aspergillus parasiticus
		14.5.11 Peniprequinolone from Penicillium janczewskii
		14.5.12 Phomol from Phomopsis sp. EO2O18
		14.5.13 Cytoskyrin A from Cytospora sp. CR200
	14.6 APOPTOTIC AGENTS
		14.6.1 Hormonemate from Hormonema dematioides
	14.7 MICROFILAMENT DISRUPTORS
		14.7.1 Microcarpalide I from an Unidenti.ed Endophytic Fungus
		14.7.2 Cytochalasins from Rhinocladiella sp
	14.8 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 15. Plant Fungal Endophytes: Interactions, Metabolites and Biosyntheses John R. Porter
	15.1 INTRODUCTION
	15.2 PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS
		15.2.1 Endophytes
		15.2.2 Mycorrhizae
		15.2.3 Fungal Morphology and Endophyte Terminology
		15.2.4 Taxonomy and Molecular Biology
		15.2.5 Transmission of Endophytes
		15.2.6 Diversity of Endophytes
		15.2.7 Bioactive Natural Products from Past Literature
	15.3 COMPOUNDS FROM THE RECENT LITERATURE
		15.3.1 Gymnosperms and Primitive Plants
		15.3.2 Secondary Metabolites from Mycorrhizal Fungi
		15.3.3 Dicotyledonous plant endophyte products
		15.3.4 Monocotyledonous Plant Endophyte Products
		15.3.5 Gene Transfer
	15.4 CONCLUSIONS
	REFERENCES
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

SELECTED TOPICS

IN THE

CHEMISTRY OF

NATURAL PRODUCTS

6389tp.indd 2 3/24/08 9:21:15 AM

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