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TitleReview of Literature of ratio analysis
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Gerrard (2001) conducted a study on The Financial Performance on which he found that Using

ratio analysis the financial performance of a sample of independent single-plant engineering

firms in Leeds is examined with regard to structural and locational differences in establishments.

A number of determinants of performance are derived and tested against the constructed data

base. Inner-city engineering firms perform relatively less well on all indicators of performance

compared with outer-city firms. The study illustrates the importance of using different measures

of performance since this affects the magnitude and significance of the results. Financial support

is necessary to sustain engineering in the inner city in the long run.

Schmidgall (2003) conducted a study on Financial Analysis Using the Statement of Cash Flows

on which he observed that Managers use many financial ratios to judge the health of their

businesses. With the recent requirement of a statement of cash flow (SCF) by the Financial

Accounting Standards Board, managers now have a new set of ratios that will give a realistic

picture of the business. The ratios include cash flow-interest coverage, cash flow-dividend

coverage, and cash flow from operations to cash flow in investments. These ratios are

particularly useful because they show changes in a hotel or restaurant's cash position over time,

rather than at a given moment, as is the case with many other ratios.

Murinde (2003) ) conducted study on Corporate Financial Structures on which he observed

that the financial structure of a sample of Indian non-financial companies using a new and unique

dataset consisting of a panel containing the published accounts of almost 900 companies that

published a full set of accounts every year during 1989-99. In a new departure in the literature,

the dataset includes quoted and unquoted companies. We compare the sources-uses approach to

analyzing company financial structures with the asset-liability approach. We use both approaches

to characterize and to compare the financial structures of Indian companies over time; between

quoted and unquoted companies; and between companies which belong to a business group and

those that do not. Finally, we compare our results to those obtained previously for India and for

the industrial countries.

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McMahon (2005) conducted a study on Financial Information on which he found that financial

statements mean little to the uninitiated. This paper, explains, in layman's terms, how to

understand financial information. It covers measures of profitability. The second article will

cover measures of company liquidity and the use of financial ratios. This paper continues to

explain how to interpret and understand financial information. It deals with measures of liquidity,

solvency and fund flows and describes how to establish standards against which a company's

financial ratios can be compared.

Lee (2008 conducted a study on Financial Risk on which he observed that Financial researchers,

including those concentrating on the lodging industry, use various financial risk measures for

their studies. Examples of those risk measures are beta, earnings variability, bankruptcy

probability, debt-to-equity ratio and book-to-market ratio. The purpose of this study is, first, to

descriptively investigate various financial risk measures used in the lodging financial literature

by performing factor analysis and identifying four distinct risk groups. Second, this study

examines the predictive ability of the four risk groups for lodging firm performance. The

findings of this study suggest that strategic and stock performance risk factors better represent a

lodging firm's financial risk than do bankruptcy and firm performance risk factors, and also,

ROA than ROE better estimates lodging firm performance in terms of their relationships with

financial risk factors.

Johnson (2009) conducted a study on Financial Ratio patterns on which he found that the

properties and characteristics of financial ratios have received considerable attention in recent

years with interest primarily focused on determining the predictive ability of financial ratios and

related financial data. Principal areas of investigation have included the prediction of corporate

bond ratings , and the anticipation of financial impairment]. Related studies have examined the

characteristics of merged firms the differences in financial ratio averages among industries

whether firms seek to adjust their financial ratios toward industry averages the relationship

between accounting-determined and market-determined risk measures, and the influence of

financial ratios on analysts' judgments about impending bankruptcy The general conclusion to

emerge from these various research efforts is that a number of financial ratios have predictive

and descriptive utility when properly employed.

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