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Page 1

GARDEN
of EDEN

The Shamanic Use
of Psychoactive Flora and Fauna,

and the Study of Consciousness

Snu Voogelbreinder

Page 2

2

T H E G A R D E N O F E D E N

1st Edition Published 2009 by Snu Voogelbreinder
Copyright © Snu Voogelbreinder 2009

The author grants permission for parts of this work to be
reproduced for non-profi t purposes, provided credit is giv-
en to the source. Commercial reproduction of any part of
this book, without the written consent of the author, is not
permitted.

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T H E G A R D E N O F E D E N T H E P L A N T S A N D A N I M A L S

2 5 5

was happy when I fi nally came across a few specimens of Coprinus [see
Endnotes] mixed in with a few of Panaeolus papilionaceus. I have never
tried this last mushroom, but, as Mr. McIlvaine says that in small quan-
tities they are harmless and contain a very mild intoxicant only, I did not
hesitate to let them join the Coprini in the pot. The results, however, were
very startling.” The man ate “fi ve times as much” as his wife, who ate ap-
prox. 3 caps [it was not stated what portion of the caps were from the pur-
ported P. papilionaceus]. Curiously, whilst the lady felt effects within 5-6
min., the man did not note any effects until 1-2 hrs later. The experience
was compared to “violent opium poisoning” [see Papaver], which the
couple believed they knew about from reading the visionary experiences
described in De Quincy’s “Confessions of an English Opium-Eater”. All
effects subsided within 4-5 hrs (Fries 1916).

There has been a report of accidental mushroom-intoxication in
France, believed to have involved C. cyanescens or a similar species which
had become naturalised. This species normally occurs in tropical areas.
Specimens of the Copelandia sp. were shown to contain 0.15-0.2% psilo-
cybin, and similar quantities of tryptophan; these were also present in the
mycelium (Heim et al. 1966).

C. cyanescens is also used and highly-prized by some in n.e. Australia
and South Australia, where specimens are known as ‘blue meanies’, re-
ferring to the strong bluing reaction of this species [and to the charac-
ters of the same name in ‘Yellow Submarine’]; its potency rivals many of
the commonly used Psilocybe mushrooms. Some people do not like el-
ements of the effects, however, and prefer Psilocybe. P. antillarum may
also have been used in Australia for its psychotropic properties, and there
are reports from earlier last century of intoxications produced by P. ova-
tus [a synonym of P. antillarum] in NSW, Australia, though identifi cation
may have been in error (pers. obs.; Aberdeen & Jones 1958; Low 1985;
Southcott 1974; Trotter 1944).

A psychedelic intoxication from P. foenisecii was reported from
Adelaide [S. Australia], in a 2-year-old girl who had eaten the fungi
from her parent’s lawn (Southcott 1974). This species has been impli-
cated in several other incidents where children have become intoxicat-
ed. Intentional intoxications have also been reported from the UK; in
one case, 3 young men each ate 20-30 fresh specimens and experienced
psychedelic effects (Cooles 1980). It has been suspected by some that the
identity of the mushrooms was in error (Allen & Merlin 1993), possibly
involving Psilocybe semilanceata. A friend has also consumed P. foenise-
cii on numerous occasions [from 3 widely separate regions of the US, and
3 widely separate regions of Australia], with mild psychotropic effects ex-
perienced. He reported that large amounts must be consumed for any ef-
fects, and that the substrate in which the fungi are growing may affect the
chemical composition. Based on these experiments, he believes that “ap-
parent psilocybin concentration is directly proportional to the concentra-
tion and freshness of cow/horse manure in the substrate, and that it is
most often found apparently in symbiosis with domestic fescue-type thin-
blade lawns” [see Festuca] (Turney pers. comm.). Most ingestions of this
species - even in very large amounts - result in diarrhoea but no notewor-
thy CNS effects (pers. comms.).

As some researchers now insist that P. foenisecii is ‘inactive’ and does
not ever contain psilocybin or psilocin (Allen & Merlin 1993), there is still
some confusion about this species. Although the content of psilocybin and/
or psilocin is in doubt, and is usually not found, it is certain that this spe-
cies is occasionally capable of exerting mild psychoactive effects, with par-
ticular batches consumed in large enough quantities [over 50g fresh]. The
assumption that tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan might be responsible
for this is confused by the low yields of these compounds from P. foenise-
cii [see below], but as hardly anyone has actually quantifi ed these chemi-
cals in this species we know hardly anything about the true range of con-
centrations found naturally. Further research is needed to clarify this con-
tentious issue.

Panaeolus spp. generally are high in urea content, most so when sporu-
lating; the urea is mostly concentrated in the caps (Stijve 1992).

Panaeolus acuminatus [P. rickenii] has yielded only 0.016% serotonin
[5-HT], 0.066% 5-hydroxytryptophan [5-HTP] and 0.029% tryptophan,
as well as 5-OH-indoleacetic acid (Stamets 1996; Tyler & Smith 1964);
HPLC showed a compound with retention time similar to that of psilocy-
bin, but with different response ratios (Christiansen & Rasmussen 1983).
Czech specimens were found to contain no detectable psilocybin or psilo-
cin (Stríbrný et al. 2003).

P. africanus contains psilocybin and psilocin in variable amounts; it
grows on elephant and hippo dung (Stamets 1996). It has been consid-
ered to be ‘psilocybin-latent’ (Ola’h 1968).

P. antillarum is generally considered to be inactive, containing no psi-
locin or psilocybin [though Brazilian specimens yielded 0.035% 5-HT]
(Beug & Bigwood 1982; Stijve & de Meijer 1993), but a collection from
Koh Samui, Thailand, yielded less than 0.01% each of psilocin, psilocybin
and baeocystin, 0.035% tryptophan, 0.015% 5-HT, less than 0.002% trypt-
amine, and 2.8% urea (Allen & Merlin 1992); Japanese specimens yielded
0.045-0.083% psilocybin (Kusano et al. 1986). It is also found in Australia
in dung [SA, NSW, Qld] (Young 1989).

P. ater contained small amounts of psilocybin and/or psilocin, in some

samples (Ola’h 1968; Stamets 1996); Sardinian specimens were found to
contain 0.14% psilocybin and 0.03% psilocin (Ballero & Contu 1998); oth-
ers have found none, only small amounts of 5-HT, urea (Gurevich 1993)
and tryptamine (Wurst et al. 1992). Widespread in Africa, Europe and the
Americas (Stamets 1996). It has been recorded in dung from Melbourne
and Port Phillip [Vic., Australia], but has not been collected again there
formally since the 19th century (Young 1989).

P. castaneifolia has been considered to be ‘psilocybin-latent’ (Ola’h
1968); some specimens have been shown to contain psilocybin and/or psi-
locin in small amounts (Stamets 1996).

P. fontinalis has yielded tryptamine, tryptophan, 5-HT and 5-HTP
(Tyler & Smith 1964).

P. goosensiae from Hawaii yielded less than 0.01% psilocin/psilocy-
bin, less than 0.005% 5-HTP, 0.01% 5-HT and 0.6% urea (Merlin &
Allen 1993), though a later work states that this species is not psychoac-
tive (Allen 1998). No explanation is offered for the discrepancy; perhaps
the species used in the previously mentioned analysis had been incorrect-
ly identifi ed, or perhaps it is in reference to the low potency.

P. guttulatus has been found to contain tryptamine and 5-HT (Wurst
et al. 2002).

P. microsporus cultured specimens have yielded psilocybin (Allen et
al. 1992); this species has been considered to be ‘psilocybin-latent’ (Ola’h
1968).

P. nirimbii has been found to contain 5-HT (Wurst et al. 2002).
P. olivaceus yielded 0.005% psilocybin from 1 out of 3 fresh Finnish

samples (Ohenoja et al. 1987).
P. rubricaulis has been reported to contain psilocybin (Guzmán et al.

2000).
P. semiovatus is generally considered to contain no psilocin or psilocy-

bin (Beug & Bigwood 1982; Ola’h 1968), but Japanese specimens yielded
0.0007-0.001% psilocybin (Kusano et al. 1986); 5-HT, tryptophan and 5-
HTP have also been found (Tyler & Smith 1964).

P. sphinctrinus has been considered to be ‘psilocybin-latent’, or, as
P. campanulatus and P. retirugis, ‘non-psilocybian’ (Ola’h 1968). Many
specimens have been shown to contain tryptophan, 5-HT, 5-HTP, 5-OH-
indoleacetic acid and urea, but only some strains [‘RP1’, some strains
from Quebec, and some Italian & Japanese specimens] have been shown
to contain psilocin and sometimes psilocybin as well. One Italian collec-
tion reportedly yielded 0.08% psilocybin (Gurevich 1993; Ott & Guzmán
1976; Pollock 1976; Tyler & Groger 1964b; Tyler & Smith 1964); spec-
imens from Sardinia [Italy] yielded 0.11% psilocybin and 0.008% psilo-
cin; specimens identifi ed as P. retirugis [generally considered a synonym]
yielded 0.12% psilocybin and 0.05% psilocin; specimens identifi ed as P. pa-
pilionaceus [synonymy less certain – see above] yielded 0.07% psilocy-
bin and 0.04% psilocin (Ballero & Contu 1998). Japanese specimens have
yielded 0.014-0.017% psilocybin, and as P. campanulatus, 0.04-0.05% psi-
locybin (Kusano et al. 1986). As P. campanulatus, both cultivated and wild
specimens were shown to contain citrulline, as well as tryptophan, 5-HT,
5-HTP, urea, what was possibly choline, and 4 unidentifi ed compounds.
These researchers believed muscarine to be present in small amounts
(Tyler & Malone 1960), though the evidence offered to support this as-
sumption was grossly insuffi cient. Mycelial culture did not yield any de-
tectable levels of indoles (Neal et al. 1968). In Australia, it has been found
[usually on horse dung] in WA, SA, Vic., NSW and Qld (Young 1989).

P. subbalteatus from Europe yielded 0.01-0.7% psilocybin, 0.004% psi-
locin [in one sample only] and 0.008-0.46% baeocystin, as well as 0.08-
0.3% 5-HT, small amounts of 5-HTP, tryptamine and tryptophan, and
urea. Some samples contained more psilocybin in caps than in stems,
though others were +- equipotent in this regard. Highest psilocybin and
baeocystin content was in smaller specimens. Russian samples yield-
ed [from the caps] 0.05-0.36% psilocybin, up to 0.11% baeocystin, 5-HT,
and large amounts of urea; stems yielded 0.05-0.17% psilocybin, traces of
baeocystin, and small amounts of 5-HT, 5-HTP and urea (Gartz 1989b;
Gurevich 1993, 1995; Ohenoja et al. 1987; Stijve & Kuyper 1985; Tyler
& Smith 1964). Sardinian specimens yielded 0.31% psilocybin and 0.11%
psilocin (Ballero & Contu 1998). Brazilian specimens yielded 0.033-
0.08% psilocybin, no psilocin, 0.058-0.097% 5-HT and 0.1-0.21% 5-HTP
(Stijve & de Meijer 1993). Japanese specimens yielded 0.061-1.46% psi-
locybin (Kusano et al. 1986). Samples from Pacifi c n.w. US yielded 0.16-
0.65% psilocybin, and no psilocin (Beug & Bigwood 1982). In US samples
of sometimes considerable age, only 0-0.005% baeocystin was detected
(Repke et al. 1977). Preliminary tests showed psilocybin and/or psilocin to
also be present in the sclerotia (Singer & Smith 1958). One early prelim-
inary analysis could not detect any psilocybin; 4 unidentifi ed compounds
were detected, including one which appeared to be a 4-OH-indole com-
pound, but was not identical to psilocybin (Stein et al. 1959). Later, culti-
vated mycelium was shown to contain 0.07% psilocybin, 0.1% 5-HT, 0.2%
tryptophan and traces of tryptamine (Gartz 1989b). About 30g fresh, or 7-
20 specimens, may constitute a dose (Allen 1998). Though this species
has been claimed to defi nitely occur in Australia (Allen pers. comm.), its
presence is presently considered highly suspect and was not able to be ver-
ifi ed (Young 1989).

P. texensis has yielded 5-HT and 5-HTP (Tyler & Smith 1964).

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P. venezolanus has been reported to contain psilocybin (Guzmán et
al. 2000).

C. affi nis has been reported to contain psilocybin (Guzmán et al.
2000).

C. bispora from Switzerland has yielded 0.41% psilocin and traces of
psilocybin from dried specimens (Senn-Irlet et al. 1999); this species los-
es c.50% of its potency when dried. From 7-10 fresh specimens may con-
stitute a dose. It is often found growing with C. cyanescens in Hawaii
(Allen 1998).

C. cambodginiensis from Hawaii yielded 0.3-0.6% psilocin, 0.13-0.55%
psilocybin, less than 0.005-0.02% baeocystin, less than 0.005-0.008% tryp-
tophan, 0.005% tryptamine and 0.1-0.56% urea (Merlin & Allen 1993).
From 7-10 fresh specimens may constitute a dose (Allen 1998).

C. chlorocystis yielded 0.46% psilocybin and 0.29% psilocin, as well as
a compound which is probably baeocystin. It grows in the Okeechobee re-
gion of Florida on rich sod in grass (Weeks et al. 1979).

C. cyanescens from Koh Samui, Thailand yielded 0.4-1.05% psilocin,
less than 0.025% each of psilocybin and baeocystin, less than 0.02% tryp-
tophan, 0.026-0.033% 5-HT, 0.002-0.008% tryptamine and 2-3.3% urea
(Allen & Merlin 1992). Australian samples [from Qld] yielded 0.025-
0.71% psilocin, <0.012-0.04% psilocybin, <0.01% baeocystin, <0.01-0.03%
tryptophan, <0.004-0.02% tryptamine, 0.023-0.45% 5-HT and 0.2-4.5%
urea; Hawaiian samples yielded 0.04-1.3% psilocin, 0.01-0.73% psilocybin,
<0.005-0.035% baeocystin, 0.006-0.02% tryptophan, <0.005% tryptamine,
0.005-0.24% 5-HT and 0.07-3% urea. Caps and stems contained +- even
proportions of psilocin, but stems contained 3x more psilocybin; 5-HT is
concentrated in the caps (Stijve 1992; Stijve & de Meijer 1993). From 7-
10 fresh specimens may constitute a dose (Allen 1998). Using Hawaiian
samples of C. cyanescens [containing 0.6% psilocin, 0.2% psilocybin], 1g
of dried, powdered mushroom has been suffi cient to cause strong psych-
edelic effects (Stijve 1992).

C. lentisporus has been reported to contain psilocybin (Guzmán et al.
2000).

C. tirunelveliensis has been reported to contain psilocybin (Guzmán
et al. 2000).

C. tropicalis contains moderate to high levels of psilocybin and/or psi-
locin (Ola’h 1968; Stamets 1996). 7-10 fresh specimens may constitute a
dose (Allen 1998).

C. mexicana and C. westii are presumed to be active due to their blu-
ing reaction when bruised (Ott 1993). Some consider C. westii a synonym
of C. cyanescens (Guzmán et al. 2000).

Panaeolina foenisecii from Indiana yielded 0.17% psilocybin (Robbers
et al. 1969), though many samples from other locations contained no psi-
locybin or psilocin (Beug & Bigwood 1982; Mantle & Waight 1969; Ott &
Guzmán 1976; Stamets 1996; Stijve & de Meijer 1993). Robbers et al.
(1969) only noted the absence of psilocybin from collections more than 6
years old. In one test, only 2 out of 19 dry Finnish samples yielded 0.03%
psilocybin each (Ohenoja et al. 1987). Sardinian specimens yielded 0.06%
psilocybin and 0.04% psilocin (Ballero & Contu 1998). Australian spec-
imens yielded psilocybin but no psilocin (Anastos et al. 2006). The spe-
cies has also yielded tryptamine, tryptophan, 5-HT, 5-HTP and 5-OH-in-
doleacetic acid (Robbers et al. 1969; Tyler & Smith 1964). Swiss speci-
mens yielded 0.22-0.5% 5-HT and 0.33-0.45% 5-HTP, but no psilocybin,
psilocin or baeocystin, similarly to Brazilian specimens which yielded only
0.25% 5-HT and 0.58% 5-HTP (Stijve & de Meijer 1993). It is also found
in grass in southern Australia; some Australian samples have not tested
positive for the presence of psilocybin (Young 1989), although one sample
did, yielding 0.068-0.073% psilocybin and no psilocin (Anastos et al. 2006).
It is now commonly considered to be inactive (Allen & Merlin 1993; Allen
et al. 1992), after long being considered ‘psilocybin-latent’ – that is, psilo-
cybin is sometimes found, sometimes not (Ola’h 1968), possibly depend-
ent on substrate. It is likely in some cases that positive laboratory assays
have relied on inadequate identifi cation of the compounds present, but it
is questionable to assume that this applies to all positive results.

Panaeolina indica, P. rhombisperma, and P. sagarae have been report-
ed to be psychoactive (Guzmán et al. 2000).

Copelandia cyanescens has a cap 1-3.5(-4)cm across, hemispheric
to campanulate to convex at maturity; margin initially translucent-striate
when wet, incurved only in young fruiting bodies, soon opaque and de-
curved, expanding in age, becoming fl attened and often split and irregu-
lar at maturity; light brown at fi rst, becoming pallid grey or nearly white,
with centre remaining tawny brown, soon fading; cap cracking horizon-
tally in age with irregular fractures; fl esh readily bruising bluish. Stem
(65-)85-115mm x 1.5-3(-4)mm, equal to bulbous at base, tubular; often
greyish towards apex, pale yellowish overall, fl esh coloured to light brown
towards base; surface covered with fi ne fi brillose fl ecks, which soon dis-
appear; partial veil absent; fl esh readily bruising bluish. Gills adnexed-
adnate, close, thin, with 2-3 tiers of intermittent gills; mottled greyish-
black at maturity. Spores black, 12-14(-16) x 7.5-11(-12)µ, opaque, with-
out granulations, lens-shaped to slightly hexagonal; basidia (2-)4-spored;
pleurocystidia fusoid-ventricose, narrowing to acute apex, 30-60(-80) x
12-17(-25)µ; cheilocystidia 11-15 x 3-5(-6)µ, +- cylindrical, hyaline and
thin-walled.

Scattered to gregarious in dung in pastures and fi elds; US [Hawaii,
Louisiana, Florida], Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, Philippines, Thailand,
Australia [NT, Qld, NSW (east coast, north of Sydney)], and occasional-
ly near Menton, France; also in many other semitropical zones (Stamets
1996; Young 1989; Young, T. 1994). Also recently confi rmed growing in
dung in cow pastures near Lorne, Victoria [Australia] (Bluemeanie pers.
comm. 2002).

Most Panaeolus spp. and Copelandia spp. appear in spring or rainy
seasons; most are coprophilic [dung-loving] and grow directly on dung
[usually of cattle or horses]; some spp. grow in soil or in grassy areas [such
as P. ater, P. castaneifolia and P. foenisecii]. Check your local mushroom
guide for details, as some of these mushrooms are quite widespread.

Some authors and mycologists maintain Panaeolus campanulatus, P.
papilionaceus and P. retirugis as separate species to P. sphinctrinus. The
choice to treat them here as equivalent, as did Stamets (1996), is based
on convenience rather than agreement with any particular taxonomic ar-
gument. Regardless, these species are very similar and variable in appear-
ance.

PANAX

(Araliaceae)
Panax bipinnatifi dum Seem. (P. japonica var. bipinnatifi dus (Seem.)

Wu et Feng; P. pseudoginseng ssp. himalaicas var. bipinnatifi dus
(Seem.) Li) – yü-yeh chu-chieh sêng [‘feather-leaf bamboo ginseng’],
double cut-leaved ginseng

Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer – jên-sêng, ren-shen, nin-sin, ginseng, chosen
ninjin, korai ninjin, otane ninjin

Panax japonicum C.A. Meyer (P. pseudoginseng ssp. japonicus Hara)
– chu-chieh sêng [‘bamboo ginseng’], Japanese ginseng, chikusetsu
ginseng, chikusetsu ninjin, tochiba ninjin

Panax major (Burkill) Ting – ta-yeh san ch’i
Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen – san-ch’i ginseng
Panax pseudoginseng Wall. (Aralia quinquefolia var. pseudoginseng

(Wall.) Burkill) – san-ch’i, jên-sêng san ch’i, chin-pu-huan, han-san-
ch’i, Himalayan ginseng

Panax quinquefolia L. (P. quinquefolium L.) – American ginseng, hsi-
yang-sêng, hua-ch’i-sêng, garent-oguen, a tali kuli

Panax stipuleanatus H.T. Tsai et K.M. Feng – pin-bin-san-chek, ye san
qi, tu san qi, bai san qi, zhu jie qi

Panax trifolius C.A. Meyer – chikusetsu-ninjin, satsuma-ninjin, dwarf
ginseng, groundnut

Panax zingiberensis C.Y. Wu et K.M. Feng – san-qi, jiang zhuang san qi,
ginger ginseng

‘Ginseng’ [usually referring to P. ginseng], the revered root of the
Orient, is believed to be the crystallised “essence of heaven and earth in
the form of a man”. The anthropomorphic form sometimes taken by old-
er ginseng roots helped give rise to the view that they had potent medici-
nal properties, a view borne out in experience and modern pharmacologi-
cal testing. The root has been reputed to “support the fi ve visceral organs,
calm the nerves, tranquillise the mind, stop convulsions, expunge evil
spirits, clear the eyes, and improve the memory”, as well as increasing lon-
gevity with daily use. Since ancient times in China, even a single wild gin-
seng root [‘yeh-shan-sêng’] has fetched a very high price – the older and
more anthropomorphic the root, the higher the fee. It is possible to obtain
roots from plants hundreds of years old. Severe danger lay in store for the
ginseng-collectors [known in China as ‘va-pang-suis’], as the plant grew
deep in forests in virtually inaccessible terrain, and the collectors also had
to contend with bandits and wild animals. Today, the wild plant is virtu-
ally extinct, but is widely cultivated [‘yuan-sêng’] in China, Japan, Korea
and Russia. Although considered ‘king of herbs’ in TCM, the properties
of ginseng were long doubted in the west, until recent scientifi c verifi ca-
tion. Work in the west was slow as researchers were looking for alkaloids
and other chemicals with specifi c, individual medicinal activities; it is now
known that the compounds present in ginseng work synergistically, and
present their pharmacological effects in a manner different to tradition-
al western medicines; that is, the herb works as an adaptogen (Brekhman
& Dardymov 1969b; Fulder 1993; Gillis 1997; Hu 1976; Huang 1993;
Kimmens ed. 1975). In rural Japan, P. japonicum is used similarly to P.
ginseng as a medicinal tonic for a wide array of ills, although contraindi-
cated for pregnant women (Brussell 2004).

P. quinquefolia has been used by native North Americans to “strength-
en mental processes”, and to treat coughs, fever and headache. In the ear-
ly 1700’s, Europeans discovered the species growing in Canada, in similar
habitat to P. ginseng in Asia. Shortly after, the trade in American ginseng
exploded, as settlers wild-harvested the plant [which they called ‘sang’]
for export. Many of these people did not even use the herb themselves,
or have any belief in its virtues, yet they knew that Chinese people would
pay good money for it. As the boom in ginseng trade grew to epic propor-
tions, plants were often harvested regardless of season or age, and in great
quantity, wherever they could be found by those seeking a quick profi t.

Page 509

T H E G A R D E N O F E D E N I N D E X

5 0 9

Page 510

SEARCH FOR ULTIMATE TRUTH

many things in one
the way things are
the way things seem to be, and the way things could be
the inexplicable beauty of the evening sun
and the cool luminescence of its sister the moon
the balance of everything
the knowing that every action affects all others
the infi nite connection of all parts
each part bearing the signature of the whole
the many faces of every fraction
the delightful order in the divine chaos
as above so below
the acceptance of every occurrence
as part of the game
as another valuable lesson
the knowing of your respective place in the greater whole
and further, of your equality with everything
of returning to the whole
and seeing it was there all along
not separate
not lost in time
bringing knowledge of the untapped strength inherent in all
to affect their destinies, and in course,
the destiny of all
not to overcome or destroy out of hatred
but rather to transform, share
and strengthen all with the virtues
of quiet wisdom, resilience, acceptance and kindness,
the wonders of joy and laughter
admiration for the unsurpassed brilliance
of creation in all its glory and diversity,
knowing of the presence and overlapping proximity
of dimensions and realities
other than the ‘regular’
whatever that is
to recall that all
is of one and the same
a single organism beyond ordinary comprehension
constructed of mystery
made cohesive by an elusive truth
divided by confusion and fear
a true paradox
the simplicity and complexity of it all -
the futility of searching for a single phrase
to sum up or defi ne ‘the meaning’ -
it’s right in front of your eyes
reality is yours to explore, shape and create
why, why not?

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