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TitleThe History of World Music
TagsHistoriography Pop Culture Musicology Anthropology Entertainment (General)
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Table of Contents
                            Contents
Illustrations
Contributors
Acknowledgments
Introduction: World Music’s Histories
Part I . Histories Of World Music
On World Music As A Concept In The History Of Music Scholarship
Music Cultures Of Mechanical Reproduction
Western Music As World Music
Part II . The History Of Music Before History
Foundations Of Musical Knowledge In The Muslim World
Indian Music History In The Context Of Global Encounters
Native American Ways Of (music) History
Part III . Music Histories Of Global Encounter And Exchange
Encounter Music In Oceania: Cross-cultural Musical Exchange In EighteenthAnd Early Nineteenth-century Voyage Accounts
Music, History, And The Sacred In South Asia
Music, Minas, And The Golden Atlantic
Part IV. The enlightenment and world music’s historical turn
Johann Gottfried Herder And The Global Moment Of World-music History
Tartini The Indian: Perspectives On World Music In The Enlightenment
The Music Of Non-western Nations And The Evolution Of British Ethnomusicology
Part V . Music Histories Of The Folk And The Nation
Korean Music Before And After The West
Folk Music In Eastern Europe
A Story With(out) Gauchos: Folk Music In The Building Of The Argentine Nation
Part VI. Asian music histories
Four Recurring Themes In Histories Of Chinese Music
On The History Of The Musical Arts In Southeast Asia
Musicians And The Politics Of Dignity In South India
Part VII. Institutions and politics of representation
Images Of Sound: Erich M. Von Hornbostel And The Berlin Phonogram Archive
Music In The Mirror Of Multiple Nationalisms: Sound Archives And Ideology In Israel And Palestine
Repatriation As Reanimation Through Reciprocity
Part VIII. The globalization of world music in history
Landscapes Of Diaspora
Sufism And The Globalization Of Sacred Music
Global Exoticism And Modernity
Part IX. Musical discourses of modernity
Encountering African Music In History And Modernity
The Politics Of Music Categorization In Portugal
The World According To The Roma
Part X . Musical Ontologies Of Globalization
Disseminating World Music
Musical Antinomies Of Race And Empire
Globalized New Capitalism And The Commodification Of Taste
Part XI. Beyond world-music history
The Time Of Music And The Time Of History
The Ethics Of Ethnomusicology In A Cosmopolitan Age
Toward A New World? The Vicissitudes Of American Popular Music
Afterword: A Worldly Musicology?
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

T H E C A M B R I D G E H I S T O R Y O F

W O R L D M U S I C

Scholars have long known that world music was not merely the globalized

product of modern media, but rather that it connected religions, cultures,

languages, and nations throughout world history. The chapters in this

History take readers to foundational historical moments – in Europe,

Oceania, China, India, the Muslim world, North and South America – in

search of the connections provided by a truly world music. Historically,

world music emerged from ritual and religion, labor and life cycles,

which occupy chapters on Native American musicians, religious practices

in India and Indonesia, and nationalism in Argentina and Portugal. The

contributors critically examine music in cultural encounter and conflict,

and as the critical core of scientific theories from the Arabic Middle Ages

through the Enlightenment to postmodernism. Overall, the book contains

the histories of the music of diverse cultures, which increasingly become

the folk, popular, and classical music of our own era.

P H I L I P V . B O H L M A N is the Mary Werkman Distinguished Service Professor

of Music and the Humanities at the University of Chicago, and

Honorary Professor at the Hochschule für Musik, Theater und Medien

Hannover. A pianist, he is the Artistic Director of the New Budapest

Orpheum Society, a Jewish cabaret and ensemble-in-residence at the

University of Chicago. Among his honors are the Edward Dent Medal,

the Berlin Prize, the Derek Allen Prize from the British Academy, and the

Noah Greenberg Award from the American Musicological Society. He is

currently completing the volume Ethnomusicology for the Cambridge

Introductions to Music series.

Page 439

Todd Titon defines ethnomusicology as “the study of people making music”

(Titon 2009, xvii) and points to the efforts we undertake to construct the “idea”

of music, as well as its sounds: this chapter shows some of the work the Chinese

have undertaken over centuries making and remaking the idea of music.

It would be difficult to study Chinese music as a monocultural entity, if only

because insistence on cultural homogeneity so often occurs in a wider context of

contact and contestation, but each of the first three themes listed could readily be

turned around to produce a more extended analysis of the making of music history

in China. For example, we might look at how Chinese authors have written

on musical change, rather than its origins, or even at its disappearance.

Our analysis could consider music created in China as a means for disengaging

with the wider social world. We might complement the section on Historical

Approaches to Musicians with a section on Music as Historiography. Chinese artists

and poets have regularly utilized the resource of musical performance to make new

sense of the history of their nation. This occurs most obviously in operatic tradi-

tions and storytelling with musical accompaniment, but it can be found also infilm,

in contemporary art-music compositions that include deliberately archaic compo-

nents, and in the so-called northwest wind-style of 1980s Chinese rock (xibeifeng),

songs known for their nostalgia-laden lyrics and rough vocal timbres that point

from urban centers toward an (imagined) rural “back-home.”

The themes identified intersect in revealing ways. The writing of musicolo-

gist Shen Zhibai offers examples that illustrate what is at stake in the writing

of music history. Shen (1982, 97) opens his chapter on the Ming (1368–1644)

and Qing Dynasties (1644–1911) with an account of Zhu Zaiyu’s work on the

calculation of equal tempered semitones, proudly describing him as “ahead of

Werckmeister by one-hundred years,” an observation that rather ignores

the succession of European musicians working on problems of musical tem-

perament in the century before Andreas Werckmeister himself. Shen’s history

was published posthumously; he actually prepared much of the writing around

the time of the Korean War (1950–3), when the communist government in

China was preparing the nation for conflict with the United States. As such,

an overtly nationalistic stance would very likely have been required in order

for the book to secure publication by the state, not least given that Zhu Zaiyu

was a member of the aristocracy, and so in that sense a less than ideal example

of a people’s historical hero for the population of the newly formed nation.

In fact, similar claims have been made by scholars outside China: Kenneth

Robinson (Robinson and Needham 1962, 212–18) even suggests that Zhu’s

calculations may have been quickly brought to Europe and stimulated the

development there of equal temperament, a claim for very significant impact

upon the history of Western music; he was contributing to a major scholarly

412 J O N A T H A N P . J . S T O C K

Page 440

project that sought to correctWestern assumptions of complete primacy in the

history of science. A subsequent generation, with also new disciplinary expect-

ations, has disputed these claims, both outside and within China. Fritz Kuttner

(1975) offers detailed reference to source materials from each location, and

Chen Yingshi (1988–89) reminds us that while Zhu worked out how to

Fig. 16.3 Section of a score for the nanyin chamber-music genre (Quanzhou

2003, 193)

Explanatory note: the score is read in columns, from right to left across the page.

Large symbols in each column are the song lyrics. Smaller symbols form three

columns beneath each lyric: (left) the main pitches for the instrumental

accompaniment; (center) performance symbols for the pipa (the lute which

leads the ensemble); and (right) the metrical pattern of eight beats per measure

is marked by the symbolㄙ, three diagonal black dots 、, and a white circle 0, and

then three more black dots. The music is played by an instrumental ensemble

(notwithstanding the lyrics, there is often no vocalist) and normally performed

from memory; the working out of the several individual instrumental parts and

of details of rhythm, ornamentation, and interplay are left to the performers and

their knowledge of the tradition. A composer’s name is not given on the score.

Four recurring themes in histories of Chinese music 413

Page 877

Reinhardt, Django, 684, 685
religiosity, 95, 229–32, 575
religious music. See sacred music
remix, 64, 739–40
representation, 83, 268, 280, 298, 375, 385,

545, 606–7, 666, 668–71, 809, 820, 823
music as, 214, 767
musical, 125, 189–91, 618, 729
of the other, 282
of the self, 77, 83, 87, 733
Orientalist, 625–8
race and, 733, 734, 738, 740, 822

revivalism, 208, 210
Rhodes, Willard, 10, 531
rhythm, 13, 112, 114, 731–2, 738, 772–4,

782, 817
polyrhythm, 655, 779
pulse, 110, 777–9
race and, 728, 731–2
rhythm circuits, 732

rhythm and blues, 569, 570, 578, 612,
737, 819

riddim, 64, 67, 738, 740
Riemann, Hugo, 35, 47
ritual, 28, 136, 164–5, 171, 202, 203, 210,

212–18, 219–20, 237, 289, 331, 333,
358–9, 417–21, 428, 430, 435, 442–3,
447, 449, 455, 539, 563–7, 576, 585,
587, 593, 602, 604, 669, 772

rock, 56, 62, 84, 412, 432, 435, 622, 712, 737,
819, 836

death metal, 71
heavy metal, 612, 622
post-punk, 716
punk, 343

Roma, 359, 366, 623, 698–9
Romanticism, 256, 268, 270, 373, 383–9, 663
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 30, 258–9, 287, 294,

299, 304, 376, 386, 387, 729, 827
Rumi, Jalal ad-Din Muhammad, 218
rural, 30, 32, 68, 362, 371–90, 410, 412,

661–75

Sabri, Ghulam Farid, 598–600
Sachs, Curt, 42–3, 48, 49, 426, 480,

486, 510
Sacred Harp, 812
sacred music, 202–21, 428, 563–4, 567,

590, 597
Said, Edward, 83, 223, 313, 606, 611, 832
West-Eastern Divan Orchestra, 94–5

saints, 207, 215–20, 226, 230, 231, 242–3,
421, 587, 590, 592–3, 601

salsa, 67, 562, 717
samā‘, 105, 217, 584–604
samba, 247, 344, 731
sampling, 67, 618, 714, 739

satire, 114, 689
scale. See mode
scenes, 57, 58–61, 71, 72, 343
secular music, 232, 594
Seeger, Charles, 662, 797
semiotics, 283, 735
sentiment, 85, 207–8, 211, 306, 387, 671,

See also emotion
September 11 attacks, 739, 807, 809, 812
sexuality, 58, 301, 382, 400, 442, 693, 697,

731, 740, 817–23
shamanism, 158, 332–3, 539
shōka, 325
Sikhism, 202–21
Silk Road, 94, 133–4
Simon, Paul, 88, 614, See also Ladysmith

Black Mambazo
Graceland, 88, 92

slavery, 223–49, 557–80, 686, 730, 808,
812–13, 831

Slavic languages, 353
soca, 66–7, 562, 578, 738
social hierarchies, 58, 448, 778, 781, 823
social life
as text, 831

social media, 758
socialism, 352, 364, 409, 459
Society for American Music, 791, 796
Society for Ethnomusicology, 9–10, 363,

789, 792, 798, 833
position statements, 790, 796, 801

songbooks, 56–7, 665
sonideros, 65
soukous, 63
sound archives, 5, 501, 532, 534, 829, See also

Berlin Phonogram Archive
national, 354, 498, 502, 514–19
Vienna Phonogrammarchiv, 499,

515, 706
sound media. See technology
South Asia, 202–21, See also India
Southeast Asia, 416–36
Soviet Union, 342, 352, 363, 409, 540, 807
Spencer, Herbert, 298, 301–3, 310–11
Stockhausen, Karlheinz, 83, 93
storytelling, 332, 412
strophes, 272, 360–1, 675
Stumpf, Carl, 196, 354, 427, 478, 480, 488,

493–4, 495, 707
subalternity, 63, 205, 268, 371–4, 381, 584,

591, 624
subcultures, 26, 44, 55, 64, 72–3
subjectivity, 9–10
Sufism, 142, 148, 202, 210, 212–18, 421–2,

428, 584–604
syncretism, 47, 62, 79, 91, 159, 204, 208, 216,

423, 425, 433, 563, 627, 642, 643, 731

850 Index

Page 878

Tagore, Rabindranath, 208, 209
Tagore, Sourindro Mohun, 5, 35, 131,

206, 209
tāla, 140, 143, 768–71, 779–80, 782
tango, 59, 60, 343, 449, 673
Tantra, 135, 419, 420, 421, 429
tạrab, 79, 586
taste, 744–61
technocultures, 71
technology, 6–9, 11, 16, 57, 65, 163, 353,

463, 490, 505, 597, 618, 662, 774, 794,
828, 836

computers, 460, 462, 465, 718,
753, 759

ethnomusicological research and, 707
fidelity of, 709
gramophone, 91, 333, 334, 451, 457, 501,

597, 706, 710
liveness and, 602, 713–14, 717–18
magnetic tape, 709
mobile phones, 617, 756, 760
phonograph, 482–6, 491, 501, 507, 640,

705–6, 710, 731, 829
reel-to-reel, 526, 536, 541
sound media, 5, See also cassette cultures,

vinyl records
traditional values and, 716
wax cylinder, 7, 481–3, 495

tejano, 63
television, 70, 431, 461, 551, 599, 623, 735,

745, 750–2
state, 334, 599

temporality, 1, 13, 95, 159, 203, 211, 214,
590, See also time

terrorism, 813, 835
teyyam, 216–17, 442–3, 446, 456–60
theater, 135, 272, 331–2, 420, 422, 426
Tiananmen Square, 84, 613
timba, 68
time, 767–84, See also temporality
cosmic, 781
metaphysics of, 776, 784
temporal perception, 777
time scales, 778, 779, 781, 783

Tin Pan Alley, 608, 710, 816–17
tonality, 287, 504
topography, 171–2, 669
tourism, 90, 157, 359, 426, 428, 430, 432,

434, 445, 452, 578, 601, 670
Tracey, Hugh, 650, 711
traditional music, 78, 321, 329, 430, 502,

611, 615, 619, 639, 815
trance, 603
transcription, 82, 193, 307, 325, 329, 356,

503, 524, 533, 544, 655
translation, 146, 152, 256, 264, 268, 270–4,

329, 816, 826

transmission, 3, 10, 194, 215, 255, 265, 268,
330, 336, 338, 454, 592, 647

travel literature, 194, 303
tristes, 377, 379, 382
Turnbull, Colin, 644, 653

universalism, 16, 25, 94, 259, 279, 280, 288,
290, 291, 295, 296, 298, 311, 808

of music, 277–8, 279, 287, 292, 295,
310, 705

universal history, 4–5, 35, 105, 190, 259, 281
urban, 58, 59, 149, 152, 234, 332, 382, 383–5,

410–12, 500, 571, 627, 665, 672,
712–13, 716, 817

vaudeville, 608, 672
vinyl records, 61, 63–7

78-rpm, 674
violence, 2, 13–14, 15–16, 186–7, 192, 224,

453, 456, 557–9, 561, 797–8, 822, 834
virtuosity, 45, 139, 219, 234, 323, 599, 683
Vodou, 564–6
voice, 588
Volkslied. See folk song
Volksmusik. See folk music

Wang, Leehom, 611–29
war, 15, 94, 157, 164, 188, 248, 324, 357, 424,

426, 429, 432, 557, 796, 812–13, 814, 834
weddings, 106, 458, 518
Western art music, 23, 29, 61, 71, 235,

292, 410
appropriation of, 607, 622
as world music, 75–96
colonialism and, 75–81
complexity of, 290
composition, 335–41
crossovers, 343
education, 326–7
mimesis and, 241
nationalism and, 90
popularity of, 334–5
scholarship on, 2, 11, 29, 31–42, 46–50,

196, 727, 828, 836
westernization, 336, 606–8, 831
work. See labor
world beat, 11, 50, 80, 608, 614–15
WorldWar I, 36, 362, 425, 479, 495, 508, 731
WorldWar II, 8, 56, 78, 83, 168, 354–7, 362,

416, 495, 512, 667, 696, 712, 731, 829
World’s Columbian Exposition, 7, 815

yaraví, 377–9
YouTube, 68, 597, 601, 603, 734–5, 753

Zionism, 499, 507–9, 512, 514
zouk, 562

Index 851

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