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Table of Contents
                            Contents
Preface
Presentation of Award
Introduction
Yarshater The Persian Presence in the Islamic World
Saliba Persian Scientists in the Islamic World
Schimmel The West-Eastern Divan
Boewering Ideas of Time in Persian Mysticism
Grabar Persian Miniatures: Illustrations or Paintings
Bosworth The Persian Contribution to Islamic Historiography
Doerfer The Influence of Persian Language and Literature among the Turks
INDEX
	Khurasan
STOP
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

THIRTEENTH GIORGIO LEVI DELLA VIDA BIENNIAL
CONFERENCE

The Persian presence in the Islamic world

The thirteenth volume based on the Giorgio Levi Della Vida conference
series at UCLA assesses the role played by the Iranian peoples in the devel-
opment and consolidation of Islamic civilization. In his key chapter, Ehsan
Yarshater casts fresh light on that role, challenging the view that, after reach-
ing a climax in Baghdad in the ninth century, Islamic culture entered a period
of stagnation and decline. In fact, he maintains, a new and remarkably cre-
ative phase began in Khurasan and Transoxania, symbolized by the adoption
of Persian as the medium of literary expression. Persian literary and intellec-
tual paradigms and a mystical world-view spread from Anatolia to India. By
the mid-sixteenth century, they were being supported and cultivated in the
three empires that encompassed the greater part of the Islamic world: the
Ottoman, the Safavid, and the Mughal. Professor Yarshater also challenges
some traditional assumptions and recent claims about the "Islamization of
Persia" or "Persianization of Islam."

In the chapters which follow, six distinguished scholars consider the his-
torical, cultural, and religious aspects of the Persian presence in Islamic
civilization.

Richard G. Hovannisian is Professor of History and tbe Holder of the
Armenian Educational Foundation Chair in Armenian History at the Uni-
versity of California, Los Angeles.

Georges Sabagh is Professsor of Sociology at the University of California,
Los Angeles.

Page 72

~ •• _II'.=" ~'i

120 Ehsan Yarshater

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Page 144

264 Index

Sabzevar, 203, 234
Sacy, Sylvestre de, 163
Sa'di, 77, 93, 99,152,154,159,160,

161, 162,213,237,238,246
Sadr ai-Din Shirazi, 101, 103
Safavid: empire, 82, 83, 102, 153, 159;

period, 94, 99; style, 88
SafIands, 233
Sagzi patriotism, 233
Sabram aI-Marwazi, 44
Sill' family, 228
Sa'ib,lOO
Saif ibn Dhi Yazan, 26
saints, 198
salat (prayer), 179
Saljuqs, see Seljuqs
aI-SalIiimi, Abu 'Ali aI-!:Iusayn, 227, 233
Salman aI-Parisiyy, 52, n. 190
Siimiinid: period, 227, 234; vizier, 224
Samanids, 75, 95, 96, 97, 226, 230, 234
Samarqand, 127, 138-39, 141, 144,202,

203
Sana'i,85, 148, 196
Sanjar, Sultan, 215
Sanslai~ I SO, 152, 163
Saracens, 158
Sanf,246
Sassanian: administrative system, 55, 70,

71,72,73; Civilization, 11,35;
collapse of empire, 90; concept of
rulers, 13; domination of the i:Iljaz
region by, 27; ideas passed to Islam,
43, 94-95; impact on caliphal co~
72; influence on Abbasid state, 6,
12-13; Iran, 95; kings, 42; literature,
35; monarchy, 7, 29; period, 81; policy
of centralization, 22; products, 46;
proficiency in planning and
managemen~ 72; traditions of poetry,
97; written worts, 94

Sasarud: rock reliefs, 218; times, 221
Sasaruds, 20, 22, 218, 220, 224, 225
Satan (!blis), 147, 197
Jayk (leader), 198
Sayk al-iSraq, 193
sayyUh (descendants of Mul)ammad),

234
Scandinavia, 240
Schack, Coun~ 165
Schaeder, Hans H., 48, 163

Schiller, 166
Schleswig-Holsteln-Gottorp, 159
Schubert, 164
Schumann, 164
Schwannau, Vincenz von Rosenzweig.

166
Sea of Marmara, 82
Seal of the Prophets, 198
Seal of the Saints, 198
Sebiiktigin, 231
Seleucid datings, 225
Seleucids, 5
Seleucus I, 19
Seljuq: amirs, 233; diwans, 230; period,

233, 234, 235
Seljuqs, 76, 86, 98, 228, 230, 23 I
Sevrey, 239
Shaban, M. A., 59
Shah Abbas, 159
Shah Isrna'iI, 101
Shah Tahmasp, 153,219,207, n. 14
Shaiuulma (Shahniimeh), 41, 46, 90, 97,

ISO, 165,219,230, n. 27; German
verse translation of, 165

Shahid, Irfan, 25
Shahrastiini, 91
Shaikh Al)mad of Al)sa, 103
Shaikh Ai)mad Yasavi, 203
Shaikh Saduq, 94
Shaikhi school, 103
Shaked, Shaul, 41-45
Shakespeare, 168
Shapiir 1,17,20,21,222
Sharaf ai-Din 'lsa (Ayyiibid sultan), 230,

n.27
Shari 'a (Islamic law), 98
aI-Shan'a, Sadr, 137
Sharon, Moshe, 58-59, 61, 69
Shaykh ai-Islam, 235
Shi'ism, 42, 61, 83, 84,94, 101
Shi~ite: claim to succession of the

Prophe~ 63; martyrs, 102; origin of
Abbasid propaganda, 61, 63;
orthodoxy, 104; practice of Koran
chanting, 33; tenets, 44; though~ 84,
94; Traditions, 94; views on the
beginning of creation, 186, n. 48

shikasteh (cursive) style, 79
Shiraz, 84, 168,203,235
Shirazi, !bn Zarkub, 235

Index 265

Shiriizi, Qu!b ai-Din, 136, 138-42 passim
Shirazi, 'Urfri, 154
Shirwiini, 137, 144
Shu'ubi movement, 7, 68, 71, 82, 97,

102,227
Sibawayh,8
Siberia, 231, 245
Sibli, Abu Bakr, 188, 189, 198
Siddiqi, A., 48
Siffin, battle of, 54
Sijzi, 152
Sind, 88, 225
Sindhi, 150, 156, 168
sira, 222, 225
Slriij,I49
Sirbini, Mu1)arnmad, 197
Sirhindi, 152
Sirhindi, N~ir 'Ali, 152
Sistan, 75,221,227,233
siydsa (management), 72
Slyavash, 95
"Slave Kings," 149-50
Smith, V. A., 87
Sogdians, 38, 238, 239
"Sophi," 159
Sowdel, D., 71
Spain, 132, 158
Spengler, Oswald, 95
spherical mathematics, 130
sptritual guides, 147
Sprachakademie, 166
SprengUng, M .. 71
Storey, C. A., 89
Sub-Saharan Africa, 197,236
Sufi, 186, 189; circles favoringSi'i ideas,

198; knowledge, 185; martyr, 192;
moment with.(Jod, 196; mysticism
(Sufism), 85, 89,148,152,172,197;
orders, 197; poetry, 85; sources in
Arablc,I73

Sufis, 92, 98, 169, 190, 191, 197
Suhrawardi, Abu !:Iaf~ 'Umar, 196
Suhrawardi, Shlbab ai-Din, 83, 84, 101
Suhrawardi, Yai)ya, 193
Suhrawan dargah (shrine), 149
Sulaimiin I (Safavid Shah), 93
Sulami,92
Sulayman (Ottoman ruler), 86
Sunbadh,82
Sunni: orthodox scholarship, 232-33

Sweden, 169
Syria, 17, 18,228
Syriac: language, 19,40; speakers, 4;

traditions, 81
Syrian cities, 232

!abaqat (generations), 222
aI-Taban, Abu Ja'far, 225
aI-Taban, Mu1)arnmad ibn Jarir, 10,28,

63,65,68,91,222,223,224,226,230,
236

Tabanstiin, 46, 225
Tabanstiin-Mazandariin,234
Tabriz, 203
Tafatioli, A., 49
Tafa<)<)uli, see Tafatioli
Taftaz8ni,101
Tagore, Rabindranath, lSI
Tiihirids, 96, 224
Tahmasp, Shah, see Shah Tahmisp
Taj Mai)aI, 88
Tajiki, 242, 243, 244; Northern, 239
Tajikistan, 240, 244
Takht-i Jarnshid, 218
Tarnirn (tribe), 14
Taq-i Kisra, 218
taqiyya (concealment of faith), 44
Tarafa (Arab poet), 23
Tati dialects, 239
Tavernier, 159
taw/lid (Oneness of<Jod), 189
Taw1)idi, Abu !:Iayyan, 184
ta'wil{restoring to origins), 84
taxonomy, 206-208
ta liya (passion plays), 94, 102
Tehran,138
temples: excavations of, 17
Tetrabiblos, 129
Tha'iilibi, Abu Man~iir, 77
Thabit b. Qurrii., 128
Thailand, 93
Theon of Alexandria, 129
Tietze, Andreas, 242
Tigris river, 20, 197
time: as the fourth dimenSion, 174; as

"measure of being," 184; as
metaphorical expressions, 197; as a
myth of passage, 174; ~ombining of
Western ideas of with Islamic notions,
174, n. 3; conceptions of motion and

Page 145

266 Index

time (cont.)
rest, 183, n. 35; dahn view of, 184;
eternal versus finite, 181; giihi/ivWl
view of, 175; Greek notions of, '182;
idea of, 173; in Arabic and Persian
poetry, 180, n. 26; Islamic ideas of,
174,180,185, n. 47; matched with
eternity, 194; Mazdean view of, 181;
measuring of, 174; Persian myth of,
185; pre-Islamic notions of, 178;
rolling up and expanding of, 196; Shi'i
ideas on, 184, n. 42; "space-time,"
174; spiritual conceptions of, 190;
stories of, as pedagogical devices, 197;
studies on from cross-cultural points of
view, 173, n. 2; Sufi view of, 185-86;
theories explaining, 174; variety of
terms for, 181; with regard to legal
terms, 179

Time of Day, 193
Time of Night, Final, 193
TImOr, 78, 153, 203, 223
Timurid, 204, 206, 223; architecture,

213,216, n. 33; history and culture,
203, n. 8; patronage of architecture,
203, n. 8

Timurids,99, 151,202
Tokat, 149
Toynbee, Arnold, 74, 81, 82, 83, 85, 96
Traditions, see badilh
Trajan, 17, 19
Translators' Academy, 160
Transoxania, 6, 64, 75, 77, 82, 97, 221,

227,248
trigonometry, 128
Turan, 203, 221
Turanian, 230
Tiirkenlieder (German popular literature),

159
Turkestan, 85, 203
Turkey, 19, 152, 154, 170,245
Turki,I53
Turkic, 203; peoples, 92
Turkish, ISO, 153,223,239,242,248;

aristocratic titles, 240; calendar, 180;
civilization, 238; dramas, 159;
dynasties, 240; Ghaznavids, 230;
languages, 77. 87,131,140,161,243,
245,247,248; meters, 246; nations,
238; peoples, 82. 231; Persian

influence on, 241, 243; personal
names, 230; poetry, 77, 238, 246, 247,
248, 249; prosody, 247; proverb, 239;
rulers, 235; slave commanders, 226,
231; speech, 86; translations, 230;
tribes of Central Asia and Siberia, 231;
vocabulary, 240, 245; word structure,
243

Turkishness, 229
Turkmen, 78, 244, 245
Turkmenistan, 244
Turks, 96, 159,218,230,235,236,237,

239, 245, 246; conversion to Islam of,
239

Tiisi, Asad-i, 221
TOsi, N~iJ: al-Din, 100, 126, 132-34,

136-45 passim
Tiisi Couple, 134, 136, 138; use in later

astronomical works, 134, n. 19
Tustari, Sahl b. 'Abdallah, 187, 188, 196,

198
Twelver Shia, 159

Uchh,147
Uighur, 239
'ulama' (Islamic religious scholars), 232,

233,236
Ulugh Beg, 139-41, 144; observatory of,

127,138
'Umar, 44, 54
'Umar Khayyam, 100
Umayyad: administration, 60; court, 72;

period, 58, 62, 79
Umayyads,6, 13, 18,46,55,56,60,

61-63,66,72
Upanishads, 36
Upper Sind, 149
'Ur<:ii, 132-35, 138-39, 142
'Ur<:ll Lemma, 133-35, 138, 143
Urdu, 148-49, ISS-56, 158; grammar,

156; Persian model of poetry in, 87
'Urfi, 154, 157
U!nuhi, Mahmiid, 193
'Utbi, AbO N~r, 231, 232, 234
Uzbek, 102,241,243,244,245; Persian

suffixes, 242
Uzbekistan, 127,240,241,244

Valad (Veled), Sul!An, lSI, 241
Vienna, 158, 160, 162, 163, 166

Index 267

Vloten, Gerlof von, 12, 59, 69
Vohu manah, 36

Wabriz (governor of the Yemen), 26-27
wagd (ecstasy), 192
WaH, Shah Ni'mat-Aliah, 100
Wall Deccani, 156
waqf(pious endowment), 43
waqt (time), 190, 191
al-Waqidi, Mul)arnmad, 223
Wasi!!, AbO Bakr, 190
Watt, Montgomery, 80
Wellhausen, JuliUS, 59, 69
the West, 76, 103, 166
West-Ostilicher Divan, 147, 158, 162,

164
Western: art, 200; civilization, 105;

EuropelEuropeans, 203, 208, 215;
orientalists, 69, 162; painting, post-
Renaissance, 200: poetica1 and
philosophical tradition, 158; sources,
159

Western Persian, 242
Widengren, Geo, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 47,

48,49
world, 183; temporal creation of the

world,182
Wright, Ramsey, 129

Xerxes, IS, 218

Yahya b. Khiilid, 72
Ya'qilb, House of, 233
Ya'qilbi, A .. 68
aI-Ya'qubi, Ibn Wa.,t!', 224
Yaqut, 28, 245
Yarshater, Ehsan, 168, 172, 199,200,

20 I, 220, 240

Yasi,203
yawm al-kulUd (Day of Eternity), 181
Yazd, 203, 233
Yazdiin, 192
Yemen (Yaman): as Persian dependency.

27; Ethiopian garrison in, 26; relalions
of tribes of, 222

Yiddish, 168
Yima (sbepherd king), 40
YUeh-ftJ style of poetry, 238, 248, 249
Ytisuf Kh~~ Hiijib, 246
YiisufZulaikJuj, 156, 166, 170,215

Zaehner, R. c., 41
Zagros Mountains, 218
zahir ai-Din Mar'ashi, 234
~iri, 177, 185
az-Zajjaj,8
Zamakhshari,91
wnuin (time), 180, 181, 182, 185
Zamcru, Mu'in aJ-Din Isfiziiri, 235
Zarnzam,197
zandaqa (Manichaeism), 14,28
Zaydi Shi'ism, 228
Zij, 129, 137, 139-40, 142, 145, 146
Zinat al-masajid mosque, 156
zindiqs (unbelievers), 7, n. 9
Zoroaster, 30, 35, 36, 219, 222, 224
Zoroastrian, 186, 219, 220, 221; beliefs,

84,90; canonical prayers, 33;
eschatological beliefs, 34; theosophy,
85; three forms of human activity, 42

Zoroastrianism, 14,41,44
Zoroastrians, 13-14,30-31,34,39,45,

90; ethics of, 43
?:uhilri,154
Zurwan, 180

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