Download Wing-Tsit Chan-Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism -University of Hawaii Press (1986).pdf PDF

TitleWing-Tsit Chan-Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism -University of Hawaii Press (1986).pdf
TagsChinese Philosophy Confucianism Philosophical Science Ciência Religion And Belief
File Size6.3 MB
Total Pages654
Table of Contents
                            Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism
	Contents
	Preface
	1— Introduction
		Notes
		Glossary
	2— A General Statement on Neo-Confucianism
		Notes
		Glossary
	3— Chu Hsi's Contribution to Confucian Learning and the Flaws in His Theoretical Thinking
		Notes
		Glossary
	4— A Historical Perspective on Chu Hsi's Learning
		Notes
		Glossary
	5— A Comparative Study of Chu Hsi and the Ch'eng Brothers
		Special Characteristics of Sung-Ming Neo-Confucianism
		What Chu Hsi Inherited from Ch'eng I
		The Ch'eng Brothers' Human World That Stretches on the Same Plane
		Chu Hsi's Human World That Unites the World beyond and This World
		The Implications of Ch'eng I's World of One Level and Chu Hsi's World of Two Levels
		Some Clues to Move Away from Metaphysical Speculation in Chu Hsi's Thought
		Notes
		Glossary
	6— Chu Hsi's Theory of Metaphysical Structure
		Introduction
		On Substance
		Principle and Material Force
		The Principle of Perpetual Renewal of Life
		The Metaphysical Basis of Morality
		Conclusion
		Notes
		Glossary
	7— The Great Ultimate and Heaven in Chu Hsi's Philosophy
		Introduction
		The Great Ultimate (T'ai-chi)
		Heaven (T'ien)
		Conclusion
		Notes
		Glossary
	8— On Chu Hsi's Theory of the Great Ultimate
		Chu Hsi's Description of the Great Ultimate
		Substance and Function in Chu Hsi's Philosophy
		Chu Hsi's Theory of Principle
		Conclusion
		Notes
		Glossary
	9— Zhu Xi's Doctrine of Principle
		Zhu Xi's Theory of the Principle of Heaven
			The Principle of Heaven
			Principle Is One but Its Manifestations Are Many
			Movement of Transformation and Nourishment
			No Starting Point for Activity and Tranquillity and No Beginning for Yin and Yang
		Zhu Xi's Theory of Nature
			The Nature of Man and the Nature of Things
			Expansion of Zhang Zai's Nature of Heaven and Physical Nature
		Notes
		Glossary
	10— What Was New in the Ch'eng-Chu Theory of Human Nature?
		Objectivizing, Western
		Subjectivizing, Chinese
		Notes
		Glossary
	11— The System of Chu Hsi's Philosophy
		The Ground-providing Principle
		Nature
		Man
		Conclusion
		Notes
		Glossary
	12— Chu Hsi's Methodology and Theory of Understanding
		Significance and Methodology of "Investigating Things"
		Methodology of "Immersive Nourishing" and "Mind-mastering"
		Concluding Remarks
		Notes
		Glossary
	13— Chu Hsi and Wisdom As Hidden and Stored
		I
		II
		III
		IV
		Notes
		Glossary
	14— Chu Hsi's "Treatise on Jen"
		Notes
		Glossary
	15— Morality and Knowledge in Chu Hsi's Philosophical System
		Moral Nature Versus Inquiry and Study
		Self-cultivation Versus Extension of Knowledge—Struggle with Ch'eng I's Formula
		The Role of Book-learning
		Interpretation and Objectivity—Chu Hsi's Neo-Confucian Hermeneutics
		Knowledge As the Foundation of Morality—A Philosophical Overview
		Notes
		Glossary
	16— Chu Hsi on the Standard and the Expedient
		The Standard and the Expedient
		The Expedient, Righteousness, and Timely Equilibrium
		Practicing the Expedient
		Conclusion
		Notes
		Glossary
	17— Chu Hsi on Personal Cultivation
		The Background: Chu Hsi on Human Nature
		Emotions: Good or Evil?
			Emotions As Good
			Emotions As Neutral
		The Doctrine of Reverence
			The Role of Meditation
			On Self-conquest
		Extending Knowledge
			What about Enlightenment?
		Conclusion
		Notes
		Glossary
	18— An Analysis of Chu Hsi's System of Thought of I
		I
		II
		III
		Notes
		Glossary
	19— Chu Hsi's Discipline of Propriety
		Contents of the Discipline of Propriety of Chu Hsi
		Chu Hsi's Works on the Discipline of Propriety
		Evaluation of Chu Hsi's "Discipline of Propriety"
		Notes
		Glossary
	20— Chu Hsi As Literary Theorist and Critic
		Chu Hsi's Theory of Prose
		Chu Hsi's Theory of Poetry
		Conclusion
		Notes
		Glossary
	21— Chu Hsi and Religion
		Sociocultural Conditioning of Chinese Religion
		Chinese Philosophy and Chinese Religion
		Analysis of Chu Hsi's Theoretical System
		Chu Hsi and New China
		Notes
		Glossary
	22— Chu Hsi on Buddhism
		Notes
		Glossary
	23— Chu Hsi and His World
		Notes
		Glossary
	24— The Problem of Orthodoxy in Chu Hsi's Philosophy
		Notes
		Glossary
	25— A Reappraisal of Chu Hsi's Philosophy
		The Background of Chu Hsi's Philosophy
			The Philosophical Development of the Three Forerunners of Northern Sung
			Change of Direction
			The Relation of Chu Hsi to Northern Sung Confucianists
		Chu Hsi and the Confucianists of Southern Sung
			The Relation between Chu Hsi and the Early Fukien School
			Chu Hsi and the Hu-Hsiang School and Their Approaches to Moral Practice
			The Contention between Chu Hsi and Lu Hsiang-shan
				Extensive Learning and Concentrated Moral Cultivation
				Over-Simplicity Versus Isolated Details
				Honoring Moral Nature and Following the Path of Inquiry and Study
		Reappraisal of the School of Chu Hsi
			Successes and Limitations
			The Modern Significance of Chu Hsi's Philosophy
		Notes
		Glossary
	26— Chu Hsi and Hu Hung
		The Hunan School
		Early Contacts between Chu Hsi and Hunan Scholars
		The Methodology of Self-Cultivation
		The Nature and the Mind/Heart
		Chu Hsi
		Notes
		Glossary
	27— The Establishment of the School of Chu Hsi and Its Propagation in Fukien
		The Founding of the School of Chu Hsi
		Successors of Chu Hsi and the Propagation of the Fukien School
			Ts'ai Yüan-ting and Ts'ai Ch'en
			Huang Kan and Ch'en Ch'un
			Ch'en P'u[sup(bu)] and Hsiung Ho
		Principles of Neo-Confucianism
			Social Strata in Human Relationship
			Rejection of Utilitarianism in Politics
			Priority of Morality over Technique in Learning
			Sharp Demarcation between the Chinese and the Foreigner
		Notes
		Glossary
	28— Chu Hsi's Influence in Yüan Times
		The Promulgation of Chu Hsi's Teaching
		The Restoration of the Civil Examinations
		Hsiao-hsüeh and the Four Books
		"Putting Things into Practice" and "Many Manifestations of Principle"
		Revision and Reconciliation
		Notes
		Glossary
	29— Some Thoughts on Ming-Qing Neo-Confucianism
		I
		II
		III
		IV
		Notes
		Glossary
	30— The Korean Controversy over Chu Hsi's View on the Nature of Man and Things
		I
		II
		III
		IV
		V
		VI
		VII
		VIII
		Notes
		Glossary
	31— The Tradition of the Way in Japan
		The Tradition of the Way
		The Principle of Learning
		Notes
		Glossary
	Appendix A— Biography of Chu Hsi
		Glossary
	Appendix B— Conference Personnel
		Administration
		Participants
			Panelists
			Fellows
			Observers
	Appendix C
		Sponsors: International Conference on Chu Hsi
			Individuals
			Corporations
			Foundations
	Index
		A
		B
		C
		D
		E
		F
		G
		H
		I
		J
		K
		L
		M
		N
		O
		P
		Q
		R
		S
		T
		U
		V
		W
		X
		Y
		Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Chu Hsi and Neo­Confucianism

Page 327

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Comprehensive Exegesis Collected Commentaries on the Annotations of the I­li

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Family Etiquette

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Page 328

Page 317

obvious that Chu did write the  , which was circulated widely. He also made several additions and deletions but did not have time to complete a final 

version. Furthermore, the "Preface to the  " can also be found in the  ,11 with minor differences of wording 

from that published in the ten­chapter edition. Understandably, some minor changes might have been made between its preparation for the book and its later inclusion 

in the  . Moreover, the date of completion of the   is recorded in the  bh (Chronicle biography of 

Master Chu Hsi)12 while the "Supplement" to the book explains how it was lost and recovered. Thus, there should be no doubt about its authenticity.

Nonetheless, Wang Mao­hungbi (1668–1741), a Ch'ing dynasty authority on the study of Chu Hsi's scholarship, produced a treatise entitled "  k'ao"bj (An 

investigation into the  ). This work, collected in his  bk (Miscellaneous works of Wang Mao­hung),13 energetically argues that the 

 was not a work by Chu Hsi. Wang has expressed serious doubts about the book by pointing out the controversial sayings in the "Biographical 

Account," the  , the ''Preface to the  ," and the "Supplement to the  " as well as by noting that the book was 

rarely mentioned in the   and the   of Chu Hsi. Wang has also written the "  hou­k'ao"bl (A further 

investigation into the  ), which contains seventeen items, quoting the viewpoints in "  pien"bm (Disputing the  ) by Mister Yingbn 

of the Yüan dynasty (1271–1368) and those of Ch'iu Chünbo (1418–1495) of the Ming dynasty in support of his own opinion. He then wrote the "  k'ao­wu"bp 

(An examination of the errors in the  ) containing forty­six items, in which he cited ancient codes of ritual to debate the authenticity of Chu Hsi's work.

Let us look at the matter of authenticity another way. To begin with, the "Preface to the  " written by Chu Hsi was included in the 

. This is beyond reasonable doubt. Because the "Biographical Account," the  , and the "Supplement to the 

" were produced by different authors, it is understandable that they contain some controversial points. These points, however, cannot negate the fact 

that Chu Hsi did write the book. As to the viewpoints of Ying and Ch'iu, Ch'iu also considered Ying's opinion incorrect. Moreover, even Wang himself criticized Ch'iu 

statements as "inaccurate and unreliable"; they cannot resolve the doubts in the mind of others." Therefore, "A Further Investigation into the  " cannot 

be regarded as plausible scholarship.

In fact, Chu Hsi pointedly emphasized in his "Preface to the  ": In the time of the three ancient dynasties Hsia (2183–1752? B.C.), Shang (1751–

1112? B.C.), and Chou, the codes of etiquette were complete. However, those extant today . . . are not suitable for contemporary society.

Page 653

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Page 654

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