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TitleWorkplace Safety
TagsOccupational Safety And Health Occupational Safety And Health Administration Employment Labour
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Total Pages259
Table of Contents
                            Workplace Safety: A Guide for Small and Midsized Companies
	Contents
	Preface
	Acknowledgements
	Chapter 1: Introduction: What Is Workplace Safety?
		Workplace safety management is strategic and tactical
		Workplace programs: Management at its best
		Understanding two basic definitions
		Health and safety = Illnesses and injuries
		Workplace safety programs: Their purpose
		Who’s responsible for workplace safety programs?
		Key concepts: The two most critical ones
		Challenges for those practicing safety
	Chapter 2: Taking Stock of Where You Are: A Needs Assessment
		Why workplace safety programs?
		Taking stock
	Chapter 3: Creating an Effective Workplace Safety Program
		Core regulatory requirements
		Establishing goals
		Safety as a company value
		Management commitment and responsibility
		Employee involvement
		Work-site analysis
		Hazard recognition and resolution
		Training and education
		Recordkeeping
		Best practices
	Chapter 4: Critical Safety Considerations: Focusing Workplace Safety Efforts
		Taking a look back
		Critical connections: Safety and special hazards
		Specific hazards review
		Best practices
	Chapter 5: Integrating Advanced Topics
		Emergencies and related planning and response
		Risk management
		Moral and ethical considerations in workplace safety
		Best practices
	Chapter 6: Workers’ Compensation and Insurance
		Workers’ compensation
		Insurance agents and brokers
		One alternative to workers’ compensation
		Beyond workers’ compensation
	Chapter 7: Greatest Lessons Learned in Achieving Safety Success
		Creating a safety culture
		Greatest lessons learned about achieving safety success
	Epilogue
	Notes
	Appendix
	Selected References and Resources
		Books and articles (by general subject)
		Journals and magazines
		Web sites
	Glossary
	Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Workplace Safety
A Guide for Small
and Midsized
Companies

Dan Hopwood
and

Steve Thompson

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Page 129

Depending on the nature of the threat and your assessment of the like-
lihood of its occurrence, your plan tests may need to be more than the typ-
ical annual review. Weekly for most (but not all!) is too frequent. Once a
month for other threats is just right, and annually for some is okay too. The
frequency and rigor of plan tests and exercises dependent on the frequency
and potential magnitude of particular threats and your recovery time
objectives.

Crisis Management

Crisis management (and communications) serves as the strategic and tacti-
cal bridge between emergency response and business recovery efforts.3 As
with negotiating any valley or river, a sound bridge makes that journey
much easier. To the outside observer, crisis management and communica-
tion efforts are typically transparent, in spite of the fact that the scene of an
event and headquarters are likely to be beehives of activity.

Crisis management encompasses event management, including decision
making and leadership. Some flexibility exists in the models employed to
ensure sound crisis management, but consistent elements within these
models include:

• Planning

• Operations

• Logistics

• Financial considerations

Together, these categories are the mainstays of what’s referred to as the
incident command system, which is a discussion beyond the scope of this
book.4

Once emergency response efforts have been under way and the dynam-
ics of an event are understood, larger-scale planning to coordinate the
efforts of various responding parties is begun. For planning efforts to be
effective, information must be gleaned from several sources. These sources
include, for example, operations and human resources. Often such infor-
mation is analyzed and synthesized in a central location.

Many organizations and most governmental bodies use a command cen-
ter of some sort to coordinate crisis management (and communications)
activities. The command centers or, as they are frequently referred to,

emergencies and related planning and response 113

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emergency operations centers (EOCs) serve as the hub of activities. In
some cases, field EOCs are utilized in place of and/or in addition to an
EOC at a fixed location. Such is the case with the airlines. They often
establish site-located EOCs subsequent to a crash and maintain a fixed
EOC at their headquarters.

EOCs provide a base for systematic strategy development and the best
place to ensure that all elements of event management are being considered
and carried out. In large-scale or long-term events, such as a natural disas-
ter, the September 11 events in New York, or the wildfires in San Diego
County in 2004 (the state’s largest fire ever), logistical (acquisition of sup-
plies and equipment that support operations) and financial needs are deter-
mined, event management is planned, and operational needs are assessed at
the EOC.

EOCs are real; they contain communications equipment and supplies,
such as food, water, hygiene, and comfort, as well as administrative tools
that may last for days. These may include maps, satellite images, comput-
ers, radios, and televisions; all can be found in more advanced EOCs. Many
organizations do not use an EOC-like structure in order to save money.
Others don’t employ EOCs due to a lack of understanding of their use and
value. However, the functions of an EOC can be structured on a shoe-
string, and EOCs can be operated from remote locations. What’s most
important, though, is that the functions found within an EOC are made
part of your organization’s plans.

Look at a natural disaster, for example; in most events, it is unlikely that
the EOC would be operational prior to the disaster occurring (though it
certainly could be). When should an EOC be activated? There are four
times you should consider:

Preemptive activation. If, for example, a hurricane is moving toward your
operations and landfall is likely, there may be flooding and infrastruc-
ture interruption. Don’t wait for the flooding and power outages to
occur to activate the EOC. By activating it ahead of time, you can
more quickly ensure that plans are in place, resources are mustered,
and personnel are prepared to do their jobs.

Threat-dependent activation. In many cases when an organization has
received a threat, especially one that cannot quickly be discounted,
activation of the EOC may be in order. In times of heightened alert,

114 chapter 5 integrating advanced topics

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risk analysis, 121
risk financing, 124
risk management cascade (analysis of

options), 121, 122
segregation, 120, 123
workplace safety distinguished, 104, 119

S
Safety codes and standards, 26
Safety committee

employee involvement, 55
meetings, recordkeeping, 39
and program audits, 42
role of, 55, 56
Taking Stock Comprehensive Checklist,

179, 180
Safety culture

accountability systems, 158, 159, 161
alignment, 161, 163
and commitment to safety, 158
components of, 157, 158
creating, 50, 159–162
defined, 157
and measures of success, 161, 162
worker buy-in, 159, 160

Safety programs, generally
adjustments to, 76, 77, 98, 99
annual review of, 47, 48
audit. See Audits
best practices. See Best practices
checklists. See Checklists
core elements of, 30, 46, 47
effect of on worker’s compensation

premiums, 138, 139
enforcement, 53, 54
goals and objectives. See Goals and

objectives
greatest lessons learned, 165–169
needs assessment. See Needs assessment
planning, 8
program development, 4
purpose of, 2, 12, 13
rationale, 4
safety and health program for small

business, example, 197–204
terminology, 23–25, 43, 44
updating, need for, 28, 48, 118, 119
written plan, need for, 27, 46

Sanchez, Rick, 168
Security

best practices, 101

management plan, example, 207–216
threat identification and analysis. See

Threat identification and analysis
travel warnings, 97
workplace, 94–99

Segregation
risk management, 123
separation and duplication, 120

Settlements, workers’ compensation cases,
142

Simmons, Phyllis, 169
Social responsibility, 124–125
Society for Human Resources

Management, 29
Specific hazards

best practices, 100, 101
bloodborne pathogens/biological

exposures, 81, 82
construction safety, 80, 81
ergonomics, 82–85
and hazard assessment, 79
hazardous energy, 87
motor fleet and vehicle safety, 88–92
and need for specific controls, 79
recognizing, 91, 92
respiratory protection, 87, 88
and telecommuting, 92, 93
trenching and excavation work, 86
and workplace security, 94–99
and workplace violence, 93, 94

State funds (workers’ compensation), 134
Statistics, unsafe acts and unsafe conditions,

17
Strategic aspects of management, 4, 5, 8
Supervisors

adherence to safety requirements, 67
attitudes toward discipline, 53
interviews of for program audits, 42, 43
responsibility for safety, 15, 52
rewards and penalties, 15

T
Tactical aspects of management, 4, 5, 7–8
Technological concerns

communications capabilities and
confidentiality, 116

emergency response, 105
Telecommuting, 92, 93
Terminology, 43, 44

glossary, 223–234
significance of, 23–25

index 241

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Page 259

Terrorism, 97, 98. See also Security
Tests, drills and exercises, emergency

response plan, 117, 118
Texas, workers’ compensation law, 134
Threat identification and analysis, 107

best practices, 129
categorizing threats, 107, 108
contingent threats, 108
emergency response, 105–109
and emergency response plan. See

Emergency response
human threats, 108
need for, 106
as ongoing effort, 109
role of management, 105, 106
threat matrix, 189
training and education, 97

Training and education, 4
best practices, 73, 74
communication, 64–67
computer-based learning, 67
considerations, 65, 66
as core element of safety

program, 47
distinguished, 34, 35
importance of, 64
and incident investigations, 35
limitations of, 10–12
needs assessment, 26, 30, 34–36
proactive, 78
supervisors, 158
Taking Stock Comprehensive Checklist,

179
threat identification and response, 97
when to provide, 35, 36

Travel warnings, U.S. Department of
State, 97

Trenching and excavation work, 86

U
Underwriting, workers’ compensation

insurance, 135–137
Unsafe acts, 17, 76
Unsafe conditions, 17, 76
Updating, 48

emergency response plan, 118, 119
and need for program review, 28

U.S. Department of State, travel
warnings, 97

V
Values. See also Safety culture

versus priorities, 50
safety as company value, 49–51, 70

W
Washington, ergonomics standards, 82, 83
Whistleblower protection, 127, 128
Work practices, 59, 62
Work-site analysis, 30

best practices, 71, 72
considerations, 56, 57
as core element of safety program, 46
needs assessment, 31, 32

Workers’ compensation. See also Insurance
agents and brokers

alternative to, 153–155
audits, 137
benefits, 141
costs, minimizing, 145–147
coverage, 139, 140
disputes, 141, 142
and employee-owned companies, 153–155
experience rating, 137–139
fraud, 142–144
future wage losses, 134
history of, 134, 135
insurance carrier, relationship with, 150
medical providers, relationships with,

146, 149, 150
and occupational medical program, 62, 63
premiums, 135, 136
providers of insurance, 134
purpose of, 133, 134
rates, 135
recovery opportunities, 142
reporting and investigation, 147, 148
required, 134
return-to-work program, 148, 149
and risk control, 123
settlements, 142
state funds, 134
state regulation of, 133
types of policies, 139
underwriting, 135–137
work-related and non work-related

injuries and illnesses, 140
Workplace security. See Security
Workplace violence, 93, 94

242 index

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